Нодир Анварович Абдусамедов
Национальный университет Узбекистана имени Мирзо Улугбека
кандидат философских наук,
Nodir Anvarovich Abdusamedov, PhD
The National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek
E-mail – firstname.lastname@example.org
Исследование экологической угрозы в политике национальной безопасности Узбекистана
Аннотация: В данной статье рассматривается исследование экологической безопасности в национальной политике Узбекистана.
Ключевые слова и фразы: экологическая угроза, Национальная политика экологической безопасности, окружающая среда, общественное здоровье, атмосфера, естественные ресурсы, сельское хозяйство, почва, загрязнение.
Ecologic threat issues in the National Security Policy of Uzbekistan
Summary: Issues of ecologic security in the national policy of Uzbekistan are considered in this article.
Keywords and phrases: Ecologic threat, National ecologic Security Policy, environment, public health, atmosphere, natural resources, agriculture, soil, pollution.
Ecologic threat issues in the National Security Policy of Uzbekistan
To develop the complicated system of ecologic security is executed on the basis of the worldwide law experience, modern science, engineering and technology. All of them are the main terms of National Security of Republic of Uzbekistan.
Ecological Security Policy of Republic of Uzbekistan is within the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, legislation, the conception of National Security of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the declaration of Environment and Sustainable Development, on the basis of regulations and strategies about Environment and exploiting of natural resources fairly, on the basis of worldwide conventions and agreements of Republic and moreover it is executed due to the experiences of developed countries .
Since Uzbekistan became independent, on the way of obtaining the peace, prosperity and welfare for Uzbek people, social- political, social-economic rejuvenation and creation strategy is properly carrying out.
Socially directed market economy, both state and society building system of independent Uzbekistan are developing step by step. As a result of social-economic reforms and strong social policy, the real income of population are increasing continuously. Being very peculiar in the meaning and essence, education and enlightenment, personnel training, public health system and culture systems are created.
New personnel such as who have independent outlook and modern reflection, who can execute broad duties in modernization of the country, who can build modern democratic state, who brought up on the basis of national and universal values, who can deeply feel responsibility of state’s present and future, who is worrying about the destiny of motherland are coming out.
As Uzbekistan properly goes on its development and democratic way, it is relying on rich natural resources which exist in this country. Since the early days of independence privileged directions on the exploiting of natural resources fairly are identified and furthermore, to keep the pure natural environment for the new generation is denoted. This is one of the main terms and factors which supply the spiritual enriched and healthy life of people in this country.
We inherited consequences of Soviet period such as totalitarian and administrative command control system which our ancestors had lived. In that period it used to be indifferent towards the environment, the brutal exploitation of natural resources and being indifferent with the ecological situation were common for that time. This period had bad impact to gene pool of flora and fauna. As a result, decreasing of biologic variation, appearing of different type waste and especially waste from large scale industry, drought, degradation of natural resources, continental and global ecologic problems which had to be solved such as downfall of Aral Sea is still existing. For eliminating these negative consequences, firstly, protection of human and his its interests should be considered, supplying the right of owning healthy and pure environment, to keep the natural resources which is necessary for Uzbekistan and rehabilitation of environment are the one the most important issues for the democratic legal state.
The head of state Islam Karimov submitted the approximate ending of both positive and negative sides of ecologic condition problems on worldwide level. To prevent this situation the scientific solutions should be presented and all strength should be directed to it. “Ekoharakat” (Ecological Movement) is one of the organizations created in this sphere.
The main slogan of Ekoharakat is “Healthy atmosphere is the health of a human” and in order to put it onto practice it sets the following problems:
In the protection of environment and improvement of ecological situation, it is necessary to reinforce of public attendance activity from every quarter and the main focus of “Ekoharakat” must be directed to the protection of environment, and all these tasks should be the overall mission for the each citizen of the country. Responsibility on the execution of legislative act of partners and attendants of “Ekoharakat” was reinforced on available ecologic problems presented by public authority and public structures and were directed to eliminate its negative consequences.
“Ekoharakat” aims to put its forth to develop effective international partnership on the protection of environment and public health by strengthening relations with international and foreign ecological organizations.
In prevention of total ecological threat, to execute the tasks presented in this article, moreover to lead a Policy of National Security in Uzbekistan, present day’s world ecological condition and threats should be considered.
According to the calculation of scientists, nowadays 10, 1 billion ton oxygen is consumed by using of various petrol worldwide. As a result about 20 billion ton of carbonate anhydrite gas are taken out to the atmosphere annually. The quantity of the gas in atmosphere is increasing slowly, and the index rose over 10 % in the last 100 years . At once this index of 10 % in 100 years seems little. Actually, this is the developing condition and if it wouldn’t be prevented, this index will increase together with society development and history. Certain problems are appearing in such spheres as agriculture, the soil content and woods. According to the professional’s opinion, 70 % of suitable soil for agriculture, 50 % of woods, 20% water of Brink Lake, 70 % of biologic resources are being consumed by people. Annually on the earth over the 4 billion ton of oil and gas, over the 2 billion ton of coal being consumed, and as a result of grubbing out the various mineral wealth, different dust, poison gas, smoke pollute the air, soil, water, flora and fauna .
If the human impact for nature wouldn’t be within the reasonable limits ecological balance would be destroyed. Above mentioned reports show the issues connected with ecology of current stage world development, and the expansion of the ecosystem break-down. Its bad influence to the environment and public health cautions the world society.
Overcoming this situation and the legislations adopted on the protection of natural environment, to supply the execution of other decrees on the state level, and assisting to the development and improvement of the legislation in this sphere working out systematically.
When Uzbekistan was the part of the Soviet Union, in 1959 the law on the protection of nature was adopted. But the taken measures in executing the current law had been done partially, and that Uzbekistan was the main raw material at that time didn’t improved the ecologic condition completely .
As soon as Uzbekistan became independent, series of state legislation, firstly, states Basic Law- the Constitution paid attention particularly to protect the environment and to keep it pure. Furthermore, in the 50th article of the constitution says that “All citizens shall protect the environment”  and this article put great responsibility to all citizens on creating a healthy atmosphere. Moreover, one of the minor tasks of “Ekoharakat” is to ensure the fulfillment of legislation and international documents by supporting them and developing the public assistance in the sphere of governmental organizations, nature protection organizations, all enterprises and plants environment protection, improvement the condition of water and air resources, earth and biologic resources and protect them from the harmful impact of waste and the protection of public health are also considered.
As well, in 1992 UNO General Assembly established the conception of development and protection of environment and adopted the program “Visit the XXI century”, to avert the worsening of environment condition and to make a basis for sustainable life in XXI century.
From the theoretical and methodological basis of ecological threat and from the above mentioned issues we can conclude followings:
- To keep and protect environment and ecological condition should be carried out by approaching in social-philosophical point of view, and firstly it is necessary to apply ecologic threats and estimate the capabilities, to develop the level of ecologic mind and culture in people for accomplishing it.
- Ecological threat combination of global problems and unfavorable consequences are growing more and more in condition of globalization and this process is not a problem of one area, or the country, but we should consider that it is the problem of an international level.
- Uzbekistan is not restricted only with prevention of ecologic threat and improvement of ecologic security only within the country; moreover partnership with international organizations in this sphere is also carrying out.
1. Samoylov S.V. and others “About the condition of environment and the exploiting of natural resources in the Republic of Uzbekistan”- national lecture-2008.
2. Nigmanov A., Pardaev G. Ecological security and sustainable development.-T.: 2005, p 27
3. Tuhtaev A., Hamidov A. The basis of ecology and protection of environment. T.: -Oqituvchi, 1994-p 127
4. Hakimov I. Healthy atmosphere – healthy generation. T., “Uzbekistan”, 1994. p 22.
5. The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan.-T.: 2009. P 10.