Burnaev Shamil Nazymovich,
Doctorate student of Philosophy and methodology of science chair.
The Mirzo Ulugbek National University of Uzbekistan,
Бурнаев Шамиль Назымович
Национальный университет Узбекистана имени Мирзо Улугбека,
Докторант, Философский факультет, Ташкент, Узбекистан
E-mail – firstname.lastname@example.org
УДК — 1.152.008(584.4)
The essence of the concept of «national spiritual culture» and the emergence of spirituality of the person.
The definition of the national spiritual culture is given and shown the way of formation the spirituality and personality, as well as this article refers to the fact that the basis of moral personality are the moral norms of behavior, moral principles, moral laws, Golden Rule, of morality religious, moral precepts, moral categories, moral views and theories derived from the moral and selfeducation.
Keywords: personality, spirituality, national spiritual culture, moral norms, moral principles, moral rights, the moral law; moral person, a moral imperative, Golden Ruleof morality, moral education, self-education.
Сущность понятия «Национальная духовная культура» и становление духовности личности
Дается определение национальной духовной культуры и показывается путь становления духовности и личности, а также, в этой статье говорится о том, что в основе нравственной личности лежат моральные нормы поведения, моральные принципы, моральные законы, золотое правило нравственности, религиозные моральные заповеди, нравственные категории, моральные взгляды и теории, полученные в результате нравственного воспитания и самовоспитания.
Ключевые слова: личность, духовность, национальная духовная культура, моральные нормы, моральные принципы, моральные правила, моральный закон; нравственный человек, нравственный императив, золотое правило нравственности, нравственное воспитание, самовоспитание.
The essence of the concept of «national spiritual culture» and the emergence of spirituality of the person.
What is a national spiritual culture? National spiritual culture — it a created, being Created and used the spiritual values of a nation for its existence, as reflected in the spiritual heritage of our ancestors, folklore, customs and traditions, in all forms and levels of social and individual consciousness, which has become world-view, a way of life and actions of the individual and nation. Briefly expressing this idea, we can say that it is a spiritual existence and way of life of the individual and the nation.
National spirituality is reflected in all forms and levels of social and individual consciousness, therefore includes education, enlightenment upbringing, traditions, customs, rituals, language and heritage of their ancestors, folklore, ideology, and so on, that is the spiritual values of the nation.
Person lives in society and consumes spiritual food. Each nation developed its own way of transferring knowledge to the next generation, using national values and spiritual heritage of our ancestors and their methods of bringingupchildren. But how is becoming a spiritual person? — The question is not simple. We have tried to answer it briefly.
Becoming a spiritual personality begins in childhood and continues into old age. Mother begins to talk to the child when he is still in her womb, and after the birth of a child hears his parents and speech of others, and after a while it starts to repeat the words, first at the request of the parents, who then remembered himself. Gradually, he formed conscience, and when he begins to play, design and reason, thinking isproduced. The child is not a person, he was born asanindividual. In the family, nursery school, school, child maturing acquires knowledge, social experience of mankind, he socialized and becomes a social individual, that is, in person, and then by acquiring certain spiritual, moral and personal qualities, responsibility, he becomes a person. Like a fish can not live without water, like a man without and outside the company of their own kind can not be a person. It should be noted that when a child that wants to make himself, he says: «I – myself,» that from that moment he begins to take the difficult path of becoming a person. What is the personality? Not finding an acceptable definition for us, we give its definition of personality, that is, any social individual, if he is mentally fit — is a person.
In Uzbek family upbringing of children, mainly engaged grandparents and mother, the father is not always has the time, so in child appears a corresponding worldview. Children begin to think, as taught by their grandparents and mother, of their level of education depends the knowledge’s of children. If the mother does not have time to educate children, they are engaged by grandparents, so in Uzbek family, not all children go to kindergarten.
Preschool education — a very important stage in education for mental education of the child. From his childhood in Uzbek family pawned respect for elders. The child is taught to greet and shake hands. «Salam alaykum,» — begins with this national education of the child. Give place in transport to elders, sick, disabled, pregnant women — all of this is laid in childhood.
In kindergarten, the child communicates with peers, learning to live in a group, listening to stories, fairy tales of educator, involved in various developmental games. Stumble child is experiencing strong when it at all he is ashamed for disobedience, bad behavior.
In the street child, feeling without supervision, does what he wants and is therefore often naughty, bullies. Therefore, parents should closely monitor the child and always ask, with whom he befriends and plays. Protect the child from the harmful effects — the task of parents. Mannered child loses its positive qualities when he is surrounded by corrupt people. In adolescence, the child does not like to be scolded in front of his peers. He can be rude with older and become violent towards him.
The philosophy of national education — to educate highly spiritual person, with all its positive qualities. Most thinkers and Sufis in the East dreamed of the perfect person to bring up without flaws, negative qualities. The purpose of the modern national education (Uzbekistan) — to bring a harmoniously developed personality with positive qualities, because it should be ideal for young people and to be an example for it.
Now answer the question, what is spirituality. Due to the fact that there is no single answer to this question and each author is right in his own way, we give its determination that the concept of spirituality is multifaceted and represents a set of spiritual values, expressed in different forms and at different levels of social consciousness that are based on human intellectual activity or humanity as a whole, his inner world, as well as acquired by man (humanity) spiritual values throughout his life, and enshrined in the moral principles and norms of behavior, customs and morals, rights and obligations, which have become a way of life and actions . In other words spirituality — a set of spiritual values or all forms and levels of social consciousness developed throughout the history of human culture, the spiritual world (inner world) of man and mankind, which has become a way of life of each (every) man (person). Spirituality is expressed in all forms of social consciousness, and the person becoming a person acquires during the life spiritual values, which further help him to live, becoming a way of life and action. Through education and training a person receives knowledge, experience, know that there is good and evil, develops his beliefs and principles. Adhering to the universal, including national standards of morality, man forms his behavior. The formation of the person is affected by different factors. From birth to old age a person is surrounded by social environment — a social, material and spiritual conditions of existence, all kinds of social institutions — from family education to the state. Various social relations in society have different effects on the formation of man as a person, the impact of personality on society, as living in a society, a person becomes a person in it, he socialized, acquires the status and fulfills his social role. The environment in which the child has grown, has largely formed him. All he saw from birth, living in the family, in the street, at school, in the process of communicating with friends, family, had an impact on him, on his character. If a child in the family got a good moral education, a good education, to work accustomed to humanity, justice, and the negative environment of the street will not break it, of these children grow up worthy spiritual and moral development. But if the child in the family found only negative qualities, he will grow spiritually poor, unsympathetic. A negative impact on these streets often leads them to the dock.
There are the concepts of «spiritual environment» and «cultural environment». «Spiritual environment» includes all forms of social consciousness, namely, political, religious, moral, aesthetic, legal consciousness, science and philosophy, the individual consciousness, as well as ordinary and theoretical levels of consciousness, social psychology and ideology — all these people acquires throughout life, «fruits» which he uses all his life, it shapes his spiritual world, it becomes a way of life. Spiritual environment helps to shape human personality, perfecting it, bringing to a harmoniously developed personality. Purely worldly interpretation of reality, phenomena in nature, society refers to ordinary consciousness, and the child in school, college, higher education institutions, reading scientific literature, communicating with teachers, professors, acquiring scientific knowledge, scientific concepts, operates terms conceptualize Indeed, all the phenomena of nature, society and thinking, identifying their patterns and relationships, developing their scientific vision of the world. He goes to the level of theoretical consciousness. Man (person), evaluating reality, expressing the emotional attitude to it, produces a psychological aspect. It should be noted that in addition the social psychology expresses the feelings, moods and interests of different social groups to different social phenomena. In addition to the external senses and inner feelings — emotions in social psychology include sensory, intellectual and volitional qualities of man, as well as social feeling and desire, unsystematic concepts and ideas. (1, p. 12). As you know, “under the public consciousness is understood the spiritual, ideological society: attitudes and perceptions of people, political, legal, moral, and other theories” (2, p. 223), as well as all forms and levels of social consciousness.
«The spiritual sphere of society — is the unity of spiritual production (in the broadest sense) as a process and its result. It includes art, science, ethics, law, and political consciousness, religion and philosophy. All of these social phenomena can be considered as elements of the spiritual sphere (or rather, as its subsystems) «(3, p. 347-348). In other words, the spiritual sphere of society includes public and individual consciousness. The concept of «spiritual sphere of society» wider concept of «spiritual environment» because it includes intellectual production, «spiritual environment» only that there is at this stage.
To every person in the process of education should be inculcated, but in the process of self-education stick or accept certain moral norms of behavior, principles, but that these rules and principles are based on universal moral norms and behavior. Oppose themselves to the society is fraught with bad consequences, but if the person is right in his actions, it deserves the attention of the majority.
At the heart of the moral personality are the very same moral principles, norms of behavior that a person has received as a result of education and self-education (4, p. 224). The concept of «morality» comes from the word «temperament».
«What are the morals of this society?», So sometimes they say. It should be noted that «morality — is regulation of behavior by strictly defined rules, external psychological coercion and control group criteria of public opinion. Morality is the same — the moral sphere of individual freedom, when public and universal requirements coincide with the internal motives, initiative area and creativity of man, the internal self-constraint due to personal consciousness, rolling in tendency and spontaneous impulse to do good «(5, p. 223-224).
Moral norm — is a form of moral requirements, appears as a norm of behavior, as is the custom binding upon each individual (6, p. 220-221). «The moral requirements, expressed as standards are reflected in the moral consciousness in the form of the relevant rules, commandments «(7, p. 220-221).
Moral principles are part of the moral consciousness and express moral demands. «If the rate dictates what specific actions one should perform, and the concept of moral qualities characterize certain aspects of behavior and personality traits, the principles in general terms reveal the content of a particular morality, expressed developed in the moral consciousness of the requirement relating to the moral nature of man, its purpose, the meaning of his life and the nature of the relationship between people «(8, p. 220-221). It should be noted that the moral person can develop these principles and to follow them, but if this principle has become a human, then it would follow, and others. The main thing that should be taken as a principle and follow it regardless of the circumstances.
Thus, morality is at the very personality, and these morals or standards adopted by personality as his or developed by him, not contradicting universal morals, not give personality to go for a face ill, because unless a person goes against his conscience if she thinks conscience moral imperative?
Therefore, if a person as an individual adheres to certain moral principles and does not go beyond the moral standards it made during the manual, then such a person is morally stable, will not commit wrong under any circumstances, since these moral principles and standards of behavior for him are law which can not be transgressed. And if he still believes, to strictly adhere to Sharia, Hadith and the Koran or the 10 commandments of the Bible, is afraid of being punished by God for their sins, that person will not go beyond the moral standards, regulations. Voltaire is right that if there were no God, we should invent it to a neighbor was afraid of retribution in the next world for their sins and would not rob and kill.
In the sacred books — the Koran and the Bible, laid the moral precepts, which must comply with the believer, for example: «Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee,» «Thou shalt not kill», «Do not commit adultery» «Thou shalt not steal,» «Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor,» «You shall not covet your neighbor’s house, do not desire your neighbor’s wife» and so on. (9)
«There is no sin for those who believe and do good deeds, that they eat, when they fear Allah and believe and do good deeds, and then fear Allah and believed, then fear Allah and do good — indeed, Allah loves virtuous ones!» (5; 94 (93)) (10). By seven sins in Islam are ranked: apostasy, usury, witchcraft, appropriation and use of the property of orphans, publicly shaming true Muslim accusation of adultery, desertion in the name of holy war to protect the homeland. Catholics to the seven deadly sins relate: pride, greed, lust, envy, gluttony, anger, sloth.
Worship of God, and not committing sins — the purpose of these religions.
If a person has a sense of independence and autonomy he acts as self-legality, how Kant said «Act so that maxim of your behavior at all times would be the norm of universal law.» «… In the works of Kant’s notion of autonomy (self-legality) involves the construction of a voluntary maxims in principle when certain rules of conduct (according to Kant,» maxims Act «) sets the man himself and for all, that is, puts it above his changing desires, needs, preferences and transient circumstances in which it is necessary to adjust «(11. 558). The man who created the law itself and tries to stick to it, in some cases, «can come into conflict with the external authoritative regulations and orders. And then «my» contrary to law «alien» and the decree dictates «(12, p. 558).People, depending on the circumstances, especially when it can be for the condemned, may waive the law, so the moral law, adopted as his personality can be changed if it threatens his life or the lives of his loved ones, but the moral principle, which became the basis of moral personality, its rod penetrates the gut and can not be changed under any circumstances. «I’m under no circumstances will not snitch» (so said some prisoners of Nazi concentration camps) and adhered to this principle, even when going to the penalty to death (13, p. 559-560). At the other extreme, in the camps of people brought to depersonalization, they could not step to step without orders overseer could not even start eating. In these people, there was «amputation of personality», “they destroyed as an individual and the individual” (14, p. 559-560). Only those who till the end could not change his principles, not lost heart and was able to survive. Some were just lucky that they survived.
Hegel said: «The moral — is obedience to freedom.» Man strives for freedom, independence, but it is necessary to comply with the moral norms. Golden Rule states: «Do unto others as you would like him to do this to you.» As has been said, people observe a moral imperative. The word «imperative» is derived from the Latin word imperativus, which means that the command, is the absolute requirement of doing something. It is believed that the term first introduced into science Kant when he was under the categorical imperative meant mandatory universal moral law, that all men must obey, regardless of their social origin and status. Under the imperative of Kant understood as follows: «The imperative — it is the rule of thumb by which itself is a random act of necessary» or «… imperative — this rule, the idea of which makes a random act subjectively necessary» (15).
To be fair, it is necessary to adhere to universal norms of behavior. Then the person should harmonize their requirements with generally accepted, but when the code of conduct detrimental to the progress of humanity, man has the right to require changes to these standards and adhere to the new moral standards of behavior. Has the right to adhere to the principles that he himself has developed or adopted as their own, but they should not contradict the universal norms of behavior, otherwise it will be isolated from society and forced to live separately from their principles.
For Kant’s good will, the moral law and the duty to elevate man and he does so, as required by his duty, conscience.
Bad behavior can be changed if the to shamea person. No wonder Goethe said, «Behavior is a mirror in which everyone shows his image.» Much depends on the person, if he wants to change, it will happen. Man being contradictory: he is his own friend and foe, and often comes not as want or need. He is what it is, what in kindergarten, school and home was brought up, so he becomes. Street also generates him. It all depends on the person: whether it adheres to all the rules of conduct, precepts, principles or not. The challenge facing the social and human sciences, is to improve the human form and harmoniously developed personality. To achieve this, it is necessary to identify those in the human feelings and qualities, aptitudes, characteristics that can affect change it for the better.
Moral consciousness includes thoughts, ideas, opinions, theories of morality, moral norms, principles, rules, commandments, laws, and so on. Moral consciousness affects the moral individual consciousness as a regulator of behavior is a common requirement for all. Moral consciousness of the person includes the ideals and habits, feelings and attitudes, knowledge and beliefs, needs and so on.
To a person having such representations should educate them morally.
A man in the process of moral education defines himself, creates himselfthrough its own actions and behavior (16). Man after moral education can take self-education, only he can change himself.
Human behavior must conform to what he says and thinks this man. If he says one thing but does another and goes — it hypocritical, it should raise a moral category. Therefore, much depends on the person. If he does not want to change, then our education does not achieve the desired result. One should seek ways and find the key that will cause a person to change in a positive way. Moral education — the key to the hearts of the people to change their behavior and submit to self-perfection through the ideal of a harmoniously developed personality.
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