Stefano Santamato is a Senior Visiting Research Fellow in the Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS) at the National Defense University. His work focuses on U.S.–North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) relations through research, publications, and education for the Center for Complex Operations (CCO) and, prior to that, the Center for Transatlantic Security Studies. In addition, he serves as an Associate Editor for PRISM, the CCO journal. Mr. Santamato joined NATO in 2000, where he served for the Military Common–funded Resource Policy Unit, NATO Strategic Analysis Capability and Operations Division in the Civil Emergency Planning and Crisis Management Planning sections. His international experience includes working for the European Commission and collaboration with the Secretariat General of the European Parliament. Mr. Santamato served in the Italian air force between 1993 and 1994. He is a graduate in Political Sciences and International Public Law from the University of Milan and holds a Master of Arts degree in International Politics from the Centre Européen de Recherches Internationales et Stratégiques in Brussels.
Marie-Theres Beumler worked as a Research Intern in INSS. Ms. Beumler earned a B.A. in Cultural Anthropology and an M.A. in Peace and Conflict Studies from the European Peace University in Stadtschlaining, Austria. During her studies, she focused on terrorism and insurgencies, working mainly in the context of Central Asia and the Middle East. Prior to her work in INSS, Ms. Beumler completed an internship at the International Institute for Counter-Terrorism in Herzliya, Israel. She is fluent in German, Spanish, French, and English.
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The authors would like to acknowledge the invaluable research and analysis contributions of Julie Cairns and Elisa Oezbeck to this paper.