Yudin B.G. Boundaries of human being as territories of technological interventions
Four boundary zones of individual human existence are singled out and analyzed: birth of a human being, end of life of human being, zones between human and animal, human and machine. Technological interventions into human being in these zones cause especially far-reaching consequences.
Key words: boundary zone, human birth, human death, human and machine, technological interventions
Popova O.V. Problem of Brain Death: ethical and philosophical context of research
In the modern world intensive development and application of new medical technologies is not only a new stage of the science development, but first of all it is an axiological and ethical turn. Variety of technologies reinforces each other, forming an interconnected system and creates a precedent for the formation of new projects of self-understanding. Thus, a statement of brain death arises as a consequence of intensive care technologies, and finds legitimacy in connection with the prospects of transplantation. Like virtually every biotechnology, this technology is not neutral from point of value, it has in itself a political and economic interests, ideology and values of its supporters. In this regard, the questions of the validity of unconditional identification of the concepts of “brain death” and “biological death”, “death of a person”, require special ethical and philosophical analysis.
Key words: brain death, statement of brain death, sociocultural problems of organ transplantation, ethical problems of brain death diagnosis
Belyaletdinov R.R. Risk as an element of ethics of new technologies in the field of biomedicine
Ethical problems of new technologies applied in the field of biomedicine are considered in the context of risks concerned with the influence of technologies on human being. Biotechnological risks (in terms of application of nanotechnologies) are interpreted as a factor, which is characterized by uncertainty and ambiguity conditioned by technological innovation and scale of influence on human being. Influence of risks which are new and in this sense unknown it their character, on ethical conceptions, regulating technologies in biomedicine becomes an indicator of the processes of conceptual transformation of the ethics based on rational risk acceptance into ethics of uncertain risk acceptance.
Key words: ethics of biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, nanoethics, risk uncertainty
Belkina G.L., Korsakov S.N. Opportunities and borders of general scientific approaches and philosophical anthropology in studying of human being
The article presents the features of studying the human being by means of philosophical anthropology and general scientific methodology. Authors make a conclusion that the complex approach in studying the person is rather perspective one. Reductionism if philosophical and general scientific methods are applied as one-sided approach is concerned as an insufficient practice. Authors suggests complex approach for aims of human being studying as promising one. Conceptions of I.T. Frolov and E. Fromm are considered as an example of complex approach, integrating scientific and philosophical aspects.
Key words: philosophical anthropology, human sciences, I.T. Frolov, E. Fromm
Moiseev V.I. Trans-scientific dimensions of bioethics
The article is devoted to the phenomenon of trans-science, its empirical and theoretical measurements. Trans-scientific aspects of bioethics, including the problem of bioets and antinoms, and problems of humanitarian examination, are investigated.The trans-science is defined as a new stage of evolution of the scientific knowledge, developing definitions of postnonclassical scientific rationality and assuming fundamental nature of a phenomenon of life and consciousness in the ontological structure of the Universe. The empirical basis of the transscience extends by the episensority - new sensorial modalities of the changed states of consciousness (a dream, hypnotic state etc.), for which intersubjective justification and other procedures of the scientific method are applicable. The theoretical basis of the trans-science is formed as so-called “Scientific metaphysics”, a new state of theoretical knowledge in which scientific models of consciousness and life, as fundamental ontologic phenomena, are under construction. Trans-scientific definitions are investigated within the tendencies of development of bioethics. The problem of bioets and other kinds of antinoms is investigated in the framework of trans-scientific discourse. The status of bioethical problems is described as essentially trans-scientific. The institute of humanitarian examination acts in this case as a system of trans-scientific examination – scientific examination of trans-scientific projects.
Key words: trans-science, episensority, scientific metaphysics, bioets, antinoms
Tishchenko P.D. Humankind: Fortuna, Risk and Destiny (experience of eschatology)
In the article tne problem of risk concept semantic transformation in relation to the evaluation of possible consequences of development of biomedical technologies is discussed. Usually the concept of risk is a kind of measure of limitations of expedient actions and their agents (subjects). Scientific progress is considered thus as process in which noted limitations should be removed. More knowing and more able to control external processes subject, presumably, should risk less. On the basis of the language analysis of expedient actions, concept of machine as universal intermediary of the operating subject, idea of game as ontologic basis of a human act and temporal action structures it is proved that in a modern historical situation the concept of risk includes the maintenance of representations of ancient Romans about Fortuna. Thus, the ontologic finate and altered nature of human actions could become the cause and the reason of a historical contingences of human existence.
Key words: humankind, fortune, action, game, risk, language, human future
Maylenova F.G. Influence of emotions on the quality of education.
Principle of positive reinforcementProblem of the formation of skills during the process of education is not a methodological one only. at least there is, among others, one more dimension of this problem – ethical and humanitarian one, in this respect the question of allowability or, on the contrary, of non allowability of manipulation with conscience of educable person is not the last one. The key theme of the article is such important component of education as positive emotions. It is significant to take into attention that primarily emotions are a source of energy and motivation. This statement is right in relation to all types of emotions, as far as division of emotions on positive and negative ones is rather conditional. Though it goes without saying that positive emotions are more preferential, so it is stressed point of this article – use of positive emotions and experiences. any reasoning creature has a need to learn something new so if this need is used in right wat it is possible to rise efficiency of education manifold. application of the principle of «positive reinforcement» helps educable persons to experience gleeful feeling of satisfaction from their achievements in the process of education, which becomes a motivation for further education. examples used in the article as well as interim conclusions give a hope that knowledge of the principles of positive reinforcement would allow to improve communication in various domains of our life and, certainly, first of all, in the fields of education and self-education. Understanding of the fact that education and self-education are possible without negative feelings allows to see perspective of human development in new light.
Key words: methodology of education, positive reinforcement, emotions, humanitarian phsycology
Pronin M.A. Virtualistics and arete: theory and operators
The article is focused on certain philosophical problems of understanding of ontology of inner space (world) of human being in the framework of virtualistics as a new world view system. Operational approach to description of toolset of practical virtualistics-arete is proposed.
Key words: virtualistics, arete, system, operator, a virtual, mindset, theory, ontology
Yuryev G.P Möbius approach to instrumental-logical dimension of human perception of social winds in the paradigm of transcendent existence of chirality
The article explains the new approach to the measurement of the bioethical structure of a human being in the paradigm of a Möbius strip. In the development of the theory of functional system (Anokhin P.K.) arguments about the importance of functional ambivalent systems were put forward. Value egoscopy and colorografy for practical bioethics – new multidisciplinary technology of objective diagnostics of humanitarian risks and ethic-somatic patterns persons is considered. Positive results of a randomized study is presented by the “cloudy” Internet technology of the students of the Institute of rhythmology (Marchenko E.), who was automatically divided into 3 groups according to the criterion of experience learning
Key words: möbius, bioethics, practical bioethics, egoscopy, colorografy, functional ambivalent systems, Institute of rhythmology, well-being, education
Chesnov Ya.V. Biotechnological cluster: archetype of body, archetype of food and rituals of immortality
The article is an unique research made on the joint point of anthropology, virtualistics and bioethics. author suggests that archetypes of the “solid” body, initially “solid” food and “solid” endless time form a tri-lateral biotechnological cluster. That cluster functions at times in the biopower mode and at times in the biomyth mode. The vertical body position and the (ritually) horizontal food position are found at the opposite ends of the triangle’s foundation. The vertices create thought profiles which sometimes engage in ferocious agonizing battles, then complement each other to uphold the linear exclusivity. The latter aims at eternity and, when applied to a human being, aims at immortality. The “solid” food mineralogism complies with the naturalistic views of a fetus as a “solid” substance. The transition from eating “solid” food to eating “soft” food is viewed as the loss of immortality. Thus, the “solid substance” is the archetypal first principle of thinking because something “solid” assumes the continuality function assuring recursive thought patterns. Solid body and food archetypes form the foundation in the universal understanding of the plant food as a sin. against this backdrop, the domestication of plants presupposes diverse soil manipulations (“mineralogism” includes geophagy, burial into soil, experiments with raising crops). Using this approach the author sees a solution to one of the Vavilov’s unsolved problems who wondered at the prolonged periods (tens of thousands of years) necessary to domesticate plants. Plant and animal domestication was preceded by the self-domestication of the human being. In this regard more attention should be given to philosophy, history, biology and other sciences that study bioethics.
Key words: philosophy, anthropology, biotechnological cluster, immortality, panel of continuality, domestication, medicine, existence, rituals
Skorkin О.А. Human components of game
The analysis of game as it appeares in different forms and positions of somebody, who is involved into the game is made. Stressing the phenomenon of game as a social and cultural phenomenon of free activity clarifies role of games or imitations of games in everyday life.
Key words: anthropology, culturology, rules, strategy, uncertainty, proneness to conflict, competitiveness (competition), virtuality, game addiction