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ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ СТРАТЕГИЯ СОЕДИНЕННЫХ ШТАТОВ АМЕРИКИ
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Поддержка США прав человека и демократии в мире в 2006 году. Представлен Бюро по демократии, правам человека и профсоюзам 5 апреля 2007 г.
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Supporting Human Rights and Democracy: The U.S. Record 2006
Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor

"How could I live with myself if I didn’t write the truth?"
--Anna Politkovskaya, Murdered Russian journalist

During the past year, a number of countries in Europe and Eurasia continued to strengthen their democratic systems. For the first time since the 1995 Dayton Agreement, the authorities in Bosnia-Herzegovina fully administered their own elections in October. The parliamentary elections in Ukraine in March met international democratic standards and were the most open in the country's 15 years of independence. Unfortunately, democratic principles and human rights eroded in other countries. Russia implemented onerous NGO registration processes and restrictive legislation that had some adverse effects on NGO operations. Restrictions in freedom of expression and the harassment and intimidation of journalists in a number of countries in the region, including Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, and the Balkans, were significant setbacks to democratic progress. Trafficking in persons for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor remained serious concerns.

The United States gives high priority to helping democracy and human rights advocates in Europe and Eurasia succeed and consolidate their successes. The United States continued to engage governments of the region toward this end, often with other democratic allies and in multilateral forums, and employed a variety of tools to deliver tangible support to democracy and human rights efforts in 2006. These tools included training for officials, media, democratic parties, and NGO advocates; monitoring of elections and criminal justice proceedings; capacity building of civil society groups and government structures; and technical and legal assistance, grants, and exchanges.

The United States actively supported democratic institutions and processes through diplomatic engagement bilaterally and multilaterally with international partners, such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the European Union. As both a barometer of, and nourishment to, a country's democratic health, elections were an intensive focus of U.S. support during the past year. The United States promoted democratic political processes and the administration of fairly-contested elections by, for example, supporting political party development in Belarus, empowering voters' groups – including women activists and youth – in Serbia, and assisting international election monitoring efforts in Ukraine. In preparation for Armenia’s elections in 2007 and 2008, the U.S. supported efforts to improve election systems, update voter lists, educate the public on voting and democratic principles, and strengthen political parties. The United States is providing similar support, through political party training, training for mass media representatives on covering political issues, and voter education initiatives, in support of free and fair elections in Russia for the Duma in December 2007 and for president in March 2008.

While elections are an important, visible sign of democracy in action, democracy has other essential components. Countries need an active civil society, where individuals feel empowered to peacefully exercise their rights of expression, association, and assembly, including participating in non-governmental organizations, unions, and other civil society organizations. Strong civic action is the best defense against a relapse into totalitarianism. Thus, the further erosion of civil society in Russia and Belarus during the past year was particularly concerning. U.S. officials persistently raised concerns about government undermining civil society in Russia, in particular the passage of a new and restrictive NGO law. The United States also provided technical assistance and grant support to Russian civil society groups, NGO resource centers, think tanks, labor unions, and watchdog organizations to sustain their active participation in society. In Belarus where civil society was under increasing threat, approximately 2,000 leaders from trade unions, NGOs, and independent media participated in over 1,300 U.S.-sponsored training sessions and seminars.

The press, as the watchdog of an informed and free civil society, is essential for government accountability. The United States remains committed to supporting robust independent media that offer diverse views and objective information for citizens. Unfortunately, much work remains to be done. Most worrisome were direct attacks on freedom of expression in Europe and Eurasia, including the murder of independent journalist Anna Politkovskaya, and the temporary closure of independent media outlet ANS in Azerbaijan and physical attacks on journalists in several countries in the region. In Russia, U.S. programs worked to promote media independence by improving professional standards, business practices, and socially responsible journalism. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the United States helped engender a more favorable media climate through journalism training. In Turkey, where media restrictions remained a concern, the U.S. supported professional exchange programs for journalists designed to foster ethics and journalistic responsibility among younger reporters and to promote freedom of expression among editors and media gatekeepers.

Constitutional order, sound legal frameworks, and judicial independence constitute the foundation for a well-functioning society, but they are only as effective as the government’s ability to appropriately apply these tools and safeguard against corruption and other abuses of power. While some countries in Europe and Eurasia have a long tradition of the rule of law, many lack experience with international judicial training best practices, the practice of public interest law, and effective court administration. As a result, they have difficulty implementing the rule of law and addressing human rights problems, such as corruption and trafficking in persons. The United States engaged in a variety of programs to help bring legal systems in Eastern Europe in closer alignment with international standards for legal structures that can adequately protect the human rights of all citizens. U.S. assistance in this arena included working with local partners in Ukraine and Azerbaijan to create legal advocacy centers and develop clinical legal education programs in Ukrainian law schools; developing an ethics code for legal practitioners in Armenia, which led to the administration of the first open and transparent administration of the bar exam; providing technical assistance in Georgia to establish a bar association and the bar's adoption of a code of professional ethics; and strengthening the rule of law and capacity of the police, prosecutors, and judges to try war crimes in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

A cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy is to advance and protect the rights and liberties of all individuals as embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The United States has partnered with governments in the region to implement programs that guarantee the rights of marginalized populations, including women, ethnic, religious, and other minorities, the disabled, and trafficking victims. In Georgia, the United States supported the upgrading of the main forensics lab and five regional evidence collection centers, which would promote evidence-based investigations and enhance human rights. To assist in efforts against trafficking, the United States worked with Russia’s Ministry of Internal Affairs to train police and prosecutors on methods to investigate and prosecute such cases. In Belarus, the U.S. sponsored a two-year economic empowerment program for approximately 1,000 at-risk women and trafficking victims in Belarus.

The United States is dedicated to working with our partners to help them build and strengthen their own sustainable institutions of democratic governance. The United States will continue to use bilateral diplomacy, multilateral cooperation, and international institutions to support human rights and democracy in Europe and Eurasia.


Russia

"How could I live with myself if I didn’t write the truth?"
--Anna Politkovskaya, Murdered Russian journalist

During the past year, a number of countries in Europe and Eurasia continued to strengthen their democratic systems. For the first time since the 1995 Dayton Agreement, the authorities in Bosnia-Herzegovina fully administered their own elections in October. The parliamentary elections in Ukraine in March met international democratic standards and were the most open in the country's 15 years of independence. Unfortunately, democratic principles and human rights eroded in other countries. Russia implemented onerous NGO registration processes and restrictive legislation that had some adverse effects on NGO operations. Restrictions in freedom of expression and the harassment and intimidation of journalists in a number of countries in the region, including Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, and the Balkans, were significant setbacks to democratic progress. Trafficking in persons for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor remained serious concerns.

The United States gives high priority to helping democracy and human rights advocates in Europe and Eurasia succeed and consolidate their successes. The United States continued to engage governments of the region toward this end, often with other democratic allies and in multilateral forums, and employed a variety of tools to deliver tangible support to democracy and human rights efforts in 2006. These tools included training for officials, media, democratic parties, and NGO advocates; monitoring of elections and criminal justice proceedings; capacity building of civil society groups and government structures; and technical and legal assistance, grants, and exchanges.

The United States actively supported democratic institutions and processes through diplomatic engagement bilaterally and multilaterally with international partners, such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the European Union. As both a barometer of, and nourishment to, a country's democratic health, elections were an intensive focus of U.S. support during the past year. The United States promoted democratic political processes and the administration of fairly-contested elections by, for example, supporting political party development in Belarus, empowering voters' groups – including women activists and youth – in Serbia, and assisting international election monitoring efforts in Ukraine. In preparation for Armenia’s elections in 2007 and 2008, the U.S. supported efforts to improve election systems, update voter lists, educate the public on voting and democratic principles, and strengthen political parties. The United States is providing similar support, through political party training, training for mass media representatives on covering political issues, and voter education initiatives, in support of free and fair elections in Russia for the Duma in December 2007 and for president in March 2008.

While elections are an important, visible sign of democracy in action, democracy has other essential components. Countries need an active civil society, where individuals feel empowered to peacefully exercise their rights of expression, association, and assembly, including participating in non-governmental organizations, unions, and other civil society organizations. Strong civic action is the best defense against a relapse into totalitarianism. Thus, the further erosion of civil society in Russia and Belarus during the past year was particularly concerning. U.S. officials persistently raised concerns about government undermining civil society in Russia, in particular the passage of a new and restrictive NGO law. The United States also provided technical assistance and grant support to Russian civil society groups, NGO resource centers, think tanks, labor unions, and watchdog organizations to sustain their active participation in society. In Belarus where civil society was under increasing threat, approximately 2,000 leaders from trade unions, NGOs, and independent media participated in over 1,300 U.S.-sponsored training sessions and seminars.

The press, as the watchdog of an informed and free civil society, is essential for government accountability. The United States remains committed to supporting robust independent media that offer diverse views and objective information for citizens. Unfortunately, much work remains to be done. Most worrisome were direct attacks on freedom of expression in Europe and Eurasia, including the murder of independent journalist Anna Politkovskaya, and the temporary closure of independent media outlet ANS in Azerbaijan and physical attacks on journalists in several countries in the region. In Russia, U.S. programs worked to promote media independence by improving professional standards, business practices, and socially responsible journalism. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the United States helped engender a more favorable media climate through journalism training. In Turkey, where media restrictions remained a concern, the U.S. supported professional exchange programs for journalists designed to foster ethics and journalistic responsibility among younger reporters and to promote freedom of expression among editors and media gatekeepers.

Constitutional order, sound legal frameworks, and judicial independence constitute the foundation for a well-functioning society, but they are only as effective as the government’s ability to appropriately apply these tools and safeguard against corruption and other abuses of power. While some countries in Europe and Eurasia have a long tradition of the rule of law, many lack experience with international judicial training best practices, the practice of public interest law, and effective court administration. As a result, they have difficulty implementing the rule of law and addressing human rights problems, such as corruption and trafficking in persons. The United States engaged in a variety of programs to help bring legal systems in Eastern Europe in closer alignment with international standards for legal structures that can adequately protect the human rights of all citizens. U.S. assistance in this arena included working with local partners in Ukraine and Azerbaijan to create legal advocacy centers and develop clinical legal education programs in Ukrainian law schools; developing an ethics code for legal practitioners in Armenia, which led to the administration of the first open and transparent administration of the bar exam; providing technical assistance in Georgia to establish a bar association and the bar's adoption of a code of professional ethics; and strengthening the rule of law and capacity of the police, prosecutors, and judges to try war crimes in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

A cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy is to advance and protect the rights and liberties of all individuals as embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The United States has partnered with governments in the region to implement programs that guarantee the rights of marginalized populations, including women, ethnic, religious, and other minorities, the disabled, and trafficking victims. In Georgia, the United States supported the upgrading of the main forensics lab and five regional evidence collection centers, which would promote evidence-based investigations and enhance human rights. To assist in efforts against trafficking, the United States worked with Russia’s Ministry of Internal Affairs to train police and prosecutors on methods to investigate and prosecute such cases. In Belarus, the U.S. sponsored a two-year economic empowerment program for approximately 1,000 at-risk women and trafficking victims in Belarus.

The United States is dedicated to working with our partners to help them build and strengthen their own sustainable institutions of democratic governance. The United States will continue to use bilateral diplomacy, multilateral cooperation, and international institutions to support human rights and democracy in Europe and Eurasia.


Russia

  During the past year, a number of countries in Europe and Eurasia continued to strengthen their democratic systems. For the first time since the 1995 Dayton Agreement, the authorities in Bosnia-Herzegovina fully administered their own elections in October. The parliamentary elections in Ukraine in March met international democratic standards and were the most open in the country's 15 years of independence. Unfortunately, democratic principles and human rights eroded in other countries. Russia implemented onerous NGO registration processes and restrictive legislation that had some adverse effects on NGO operations. Restrictions in freedom of expression and the harassment and intimidation of journalists in a number of countries in the region, including Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, and the Balkans, were significant setbacks to democratic progress. Trafficking in persons for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor remained serious concerns.

The United States gives high priority to helping democracy and human rights advocates in Europe and Eurasia succeed and consolidate their successes. The United States continued to engage governments of the region toward this end, often with other democratic allies and in multilateral forums, and employed a variety of tools to deliver tangible support to democracy and human rights efforts in 2006. These tools included training for officials, media, democratic parties, and NGO advocates; monitoring of elections and criminal justice proceedings; capacity building of civil society groups and government structures; and technical and legal assistance, grants, and exchanges.

The United States actively supported democratic institutions and processes through diplomatic engagement bilaterally and multilaterally with international partners, such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the European Union. As both a barometer of, and nourishment to, a country's democratic health, elections were an intensive focus of U.S. support during the past year. The United States promoted democratic political processes and the administration of fairly-contested elections by, for example, supporting political party development in Belarus, empowering voters' groups – including women activists and youth – in Serbia, and assisting international election monitoring efforts in Ukraine. In preparation for Armenia’s elections in 2007 and 2008, the U.S. supported efforts to improve election systems, update voter lists, educate the public on voting and democratic principles, and strengthen political parties. The United States is providing similar support, through political party training, training for mass media representatives on covering political issues, and voter education initiatives, in support of free and fair elections in Russia for the Duma in December 2007 and for president in March 2008.

While elections are an important, visible sign of democracy in action, democracy has other essential components. Countries need an active civil society, where individuals feel empowered to peacefully exercise their rights of expression, association, and assembly, including participating in non-governmental organizations, unions, and other civil society organizations. Strong civic action is the best defense against a relapse into totalitarianism. Thus, the further erosion of civil society in Russia and Belarus during the past year was particularly concerning. U.S. officials persistently raised concerns about government undermining civil society in Russia, in particular the passage of a new and restrictive NGO law. The United States also provided technical assistance and grant support to Russian civil society groups, NGO resource centers, think tanks, labor unions, and watchdog organizations to sustain their active participation in society. In Belarus where civil society was under increasing threat, approximately 2,000 leaders from trade unions, NGOs, and independent media participated in over 1,300 U.S.-sponsored training sessions and seminars.

The press, as the watchdog of an informed and free civil society, is essential for government accountability. The United States remains committed to supporting robust independent media that offer diverse views and objective information for citizens. Unfortunately, much work remains to be done. Most worrisome were direct attacks on freedom of expression in Europe and Eurasia, including the murder of independent journalist Anna Politkovskaya, and the temporary closure of independent media outlet ANS in Azerbaijan and physical attacks on journalists in several countries in the region. In Russia, U.S. programs worked to promote media independence by improving professional standards, business practices, and socially responsible journalism. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the United States helped engender a more favorable media climate through journalism training. In Turkey, where media restrictions remained a concern, the U.S. supported professional exchange programs for journalists designed to foster ethics and journalistic responsibility among younger reporters and to promote freedom of expression among editors and media gatekeepers.

Constitutional order, sound legal frameworks, and judicial independence constitute the foundation for a well-functioning society, but they are only as effective as the government’s ability to appropriately apply these tools and safeguard against corruption and other abuses of power. While some countries in Europe and Eurasia have a long tradition of the rule of law, many lack experience with international judicial training best practices, the practice of public interest law, and effective court administration. As a result, they have difficulty implementing the rule of law and addressing human rights problems, such as corruption and trafficking in persons. The United States engaged in a variety of programs to help bring legal systems in Eastern Europe in closer alignment with international standards for legal structures that can adequately protect the human rights of all citizens. U.S. assistance in this arena included working with local partners in Ukraine and Azerbaijan to create legal advocacy centers and develop clinical legal education programs in Ukrainian law schools; developing an ethics code for legal practitioners in Armenia, which led to the administration of the first open and transparent administration of the bar exam; providing technical assistance in Georgia to establish a bar association and the bar's adoption of a code of professional ethics; and strengthening the rule of law and capacity of the police, prosecutors, and judges to try war crimes in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

A cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy is to advance and protect the rights and liberties of all individuals as embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The United States has partnered with governments in the region to implement programs that guarantee the rights of marginalized populations, including women, ethnic, religious, and other minorities, the disabled, and trafficking victims. In Georgia, the United States supported the upgrading of the main forensics lab and five regional evidence collection centers, which would promote evidence-based investigations and enhance human rights. To assist in efforts against trafficking, the United States worked with Russia’s Ministry of Internal Affairs to train police and prosecutors on methods to investigate and prosecute such cases. In Belarus, the U.S. sponsored a two-year economic empowerment program for approximately 1,000 at-risk women and trafficking victims in Belarus.

The United States is dedicated to working with our partners to help them build and strengthen their own sustainable institutions of democratic governance. The United States will continue to use bilateral diplomacy, multilateral cooperation, and international institutions to support human rights and democracy in Europe and Eurasia.

Released on April 5, 2007