Totalityof certain historical, geopolitical, economic, socially cultural factorsexplains subjection and vulnerability of five states of the region –Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan to terroristthreat.
Newindependent states of the region started to determine and consolidatestate-territorial borders that served either as the reason for interstatecollaboration or the reason of tension. This fact may be used for provoking ofdelimitation, inter-ethnic discord, conflicts by interested parties fordestabilization of situation in the region.
Inspite of efforts of the region’s states directed to consolidation of stateborders, they remain transparent for such transnational threats asinternational terrorism, religious extremism and ethnic separatism, illegalturnover of drugs and weapons, illegal migration.
Lowlevel of economic development, unemployment cause discontents with officialauthorities that inevitably results in radicalization of population’s views. Inthis connection extremism finds feed sources in the region and rich potentialthat stipulates for activation of terrorist forces.
At last, it isnecessary to indicate once more reason determining vulnerability of the regionto the treat of international terrorism: divergence of interests, low level oftrust and tension in relations between Central Asian republics impedeintegration processes, in particular, in military-political sphere required forpolitical consolidation and collective repulse to international terrorism.
It is necessary to emphasize that allfour types of “generally acknowledged” determinants of terrorism exist inCentral Asia as socially political phenomenon: socially economic; ideological;geopolitical; globalization determinants .
Social reasons of politicization of Islam liein the general systematic crisis, difficulties of economic transformation ofsociety, reduction of the social status of whole social groups that results instable disappointment of citizens Under such conditions many persons arrive atthe conclusion on the necessity of search of other alternative and suchalternative is offered by foreign Islam emissaries whose presence in CentralAsian states becomes more evident. Though this alternative is the utopia,nevertheless exactly this utopia becomes more and more required among variousgroups of the society under conditions of social discomfort .
Secondly, circumstance thattraditional, historically distribution of political and social roles betweenclans, tribes, zhuzes, regional groups are strong as usual in states of CentralAsia on which basis all power system is constructed is feeding environment forspreading of political Islam. At that the most dangerous is distinctlyexhibited tendency to regionalism that reduces possibilities of central poweron the society consolidation and indirectly intensifies the potential ofpolitical Islam.
Thirdly, availability of tensioncenters in Central Asia where export of political Islam ideas is possible.Factor of migration as well as treat of refugees carrying conflict potentialand way of life of Afghan, Chechen, Indo-Pakistan, Sintsang and Tajik conflictshas not lesser importance from this point of view.
Fourthly, it is impossible notto admit the fact that the territory of Central Asian has regions wherepositions of Islam including radical Islam are strong enough. First of all thematter concerns Fergana valley and Fergana valley is the region covering thepart of the territory of three Central Asian states. Repeated events in Batkentregion of Kyrgyzstan have already confirmed that in the case of arising ofconflict it immediately becomes international conflict.
Finally, events of the last tenyears demonstrate the closure process of political Islam with ethnic conflictand ethnic separatism. Peculiarity of terrorism is transfer of conflict outsideof primary territory to territories of other states which at the first glanceare not involved into this conflict.
CentralAsia and especially Kazakhstan have very important geographically strategicposition to have possibility to remain apart from the conflict betweengeopolitical force centers The problem is aggravated because Islam world is farfrom uniformity and inside of it there are blocks of opposite orientation usedin confrontation of political force centers in new “Big game” developed eitherin the region of Central Asia or all over the world .
The main aspects of this gameare the following: the firstaspect of this game is connected with the problem of Caspian sea and directionof transport ways from Central Asia; the second aspect of new “Big game”concerns the formation of terms providing for dissolution of Russia and Chinaand establishment of instability area in their Moslem suburbs; the third aspectis the non-settled international conflict in Tajikistan and itssocially-economic aftermath; the fourth aspect is the war in Afghanistan havingthe tendency to escalation of conflict beyond its bounds.
In a whole, causes of terrorismarising in Central Asian republics may be presented as follows:
Firstof all, these problems are socially-economic problems. As everybody knows theseproblems (growth of unemployment, low quality of health care, absence of accessto qualitative education, permanent reduction of social state expenses, etc.)as consequence of development of modernization processes in life of Islamsociety became the prime cause of protest movements and distribution ofreligious extremism in countries of the Middle East. Absence of economicperspectives in combination with crisis state of social system is able tocreate dangerous totality of conditions increasing receptivity of the societyto the ideas of religious extremism .
Secondly, this is demographicfactor. Demographic situation in considered countries has threatening growthsand the problem of level unconformity of demographic and socially-economicdevelopment becomes obvious. Development experience of some countries of Moslemworld shows that modernization may not create possibility for major part ofpopulation, especially under conditions of increasing demographic pressure.
Thirdly, this is growth ofcriminality and corruption. Modernization inevitably leads to the destructionof system connections and subjects traditional values to the probation. Underconditions of devaluation of former traditional values of Moslem societylawlessness turns into the norm and attribute of social relations. In thisconnection appeal to Islam in Moslem societies is natural.
Fourthly,this is authoritarian system, reduction of the effectiveness of ruling regimes.In this case the society, as a rule, creates powerful opposition to theexisting political and economic regime. At that certain part of populationapplies to Islam political movements .
Problem ofinternational terrorism in the region of Central Asia resulted in the necessityof region states and all world community to take immediate measures for therepulse of this threat. The main issue is to create such multilevel securitysystem to repulse new security challenges and threats according to time andpolitical realties.
Antiterrorist policyin Central Asia is carried out generally at the expense of mechanisms of CISAntiterrorist center, Collective Security Agreement Organization, ShanghaiCooperation Organization.
CISAntiterrorist center (ATC) isthe permanent acting specialized body of CIS and assigned for the provision ofcoordination and interaction of the competent bodies of CIS in the sphere ofstruggle with international terrorism and other extremism. The principal issueis analytic work: accumulation, summarizing analysis of information of thecondition, dynamics and tendencies of spread of international terrorism andother extremism, presentation of practical recommendations to CIS countries.The Center forms data bank on international terrorist organizations in CIScountries, their leaders, persons or structures supporting them. The Centercooperates with CIS countries in carrying out of operatively-search measures,operation on struggle with terrorism as well as carries out antiterroristcommand-staff and operatively-tactical trainings; organizes training andpreparation of specialists of antiterrorist subdivisions.
Programsof antiterrorist activity are developed and implemented within ATC.
Workon the establishment, strengthening and development of working contacts withinternational antiterrorist organizations is carried out. Contacts with UNDepartment on drugs control and criminality prevention have been establishedincluding its structural subdivisions on terrorism struggle as well as contactswith International center of the financial terrorism struggle have been established.Besides, all CIS countries participate in the discussion of terrorism problemswith NATO within the program “Partnership for Peace”.
Cooperationin the prevention and suppression of crimes relating to terrorist activity isestablished. Authorities of CIS countries carried out some agreed measures onorganization of search and arrest of persons connected with terrorist activity;suppression of the activity of terrorist groups as well as blockage of channelsof the financial support to these groups; revelation of bases, training camps,treatment and recreation places of terrorists; blockage of transportationroutes as well as its own territory’s prevention of training to the commitmentof terrorist acts on the territory of other CIS countries. Cooperation of theCenter with Ministry of state and public security of China and profilestructures of USA, Germany, Austria, Japan develops very dynamically thatpositively affects making of the common conception and development ofinternational legal basis of threat counteraction coming from internationalterrorism.
Generaldata bank of CIS ATC containing information on terrorist groups and groupssupporting them operates and this significantly facilitates efforts bothregional and world community in struggle with this evil. Participants carry outpractical collective measures on revelation, prevention and suppression of theactivity of international organizations as well as measures on training to theresponse to any terrorism within CIS ATC.
Someimportant statutory legal documents composing legal basis of military-politicalcooperation and reflecting its principal directions were signed within CollectiveSecurity Agreement Organization (OACS): Conception of collective security of ACSmember states; document on “Principal Directions of Military CooperationImprovement”; Agreement on theestablishment of united air-raid system; Memorandum on ACS efficiencyimprovement and its adaptation to modern geopolitical situation; Provision onthe order of acceptance and implementation of collective decisions in respectof force and means application of collective security system; Agreement on themain principals of military-technical cooperation.
Subject to the Agreement memberstates provides for their security on the collective basis implementing theright to collective defense stated in article 51 of UN Charter. Objective oforganization is to prevent or liquidate military threat to sovereignty andterritorial integrity of member states. Principal issue is to establish reallyacting mechanisms of military-political interaction to provide for nationalsecurity of member states on the collective basis. Obligation of member statesto coordinate and adjust their foreign political positions on international andregional problems of security became principally important provision of theAgreement. Thus, OACS is defensive organization in order to withstand newchallenges and threats of national, regional and international securityincluding international terrorism, illegal drug and weapon traffic, organizedcrime, illegal migration. Foreign-politically OACS wants to develop cooperationwith regional and international organizations acting in the sphere of securitysuch as UNO and its specialized departments, Organization on Security andCooperation in Europe, NATO, EU, CIS, Shanghai Cooperation Organization,Eurasian Economic Community.
Multivariateand multilevel model of security system shall be the most optimal model ofsecurity in Central Asia taking into consideration its specificity andcorrelations of forces in the world.
Present multilevel configurationof regional security system in Central Asia became possible due tointernational antiterrorist campaign which was started after tragic events ofSeptember 11, 2001 inUSA.
Availability of common enemy inthe person of international terrorism, solidarity of objectives directed toliquidation of terrorism, separatism and religious extremism smoothedcontradictions existing in the region and between force centers that, finally, resultedin those rapid changes in the sphere of the security provision.
Each of five statesof Central Asia took and fulfilled measure complex directed to counteraction toterrorism and extremism. These measures may be divided to two following groups:
а)international measures conducted by each country independently on its ownterritory;
b) collective measures conductedwithin bilateral and multilateral international cooperation. Improvement andenlargement of the conceptual bases and legal basis of the official policy onterrorism and extremism counteraction is one of the important directions of internationalmeasures .
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