Журнальный клуб Интелрос » Credo New » №1, 2016
Аминова Нурхон Бобомуродовна
Ташкентский государственный педагогический
университет им. Низами
докторант кафедры «Философия»
Aminova Nurhon Bobomurodovna
The Tashkent State Pedagogical University
doctorate student, Department of Philosophy
The dialectical relationship between spirituality and social progress
Abstract. In given article some problems deal with revealing separate aspects of dialectic relations between the concept of “spirituality” and social progress are considered. Also there achievements on revival of spirituality and interrelation of spiritual developing of person and society in the Republic of Uzbekistan are studying.
Keywords: spirituality, person, social progress, the Republic of Uzbekistan, dialectic relationship, human essence, humanism, historicism, spiritual revival, spiritual values.
Диалектическая связь между духовностью и социальным прогрессом
Аннотация. В данной статье рассматриваются некоторые проблемы, связанные с выявлением отдельных аспектов диалектической связи между понятием «духовность» и социальным прогрессом. Также изучаются достижения по возрождению духовности и взаимосвязи духовного развития личности и общества в Республике Узбекистан.
Ключевые слова: духовность, личность, социальный прогресс, Республика Узбекистан, диалектическая связь, человеческая сущность, гуманизм, историцизм, духовное возрождение, духовные ценности.
The dialectical relationship between spirituality and social progress
Today, spirituality is one of the urgent problems of philosophical reflection. There is an awareness that it is an initial and necessary moment of genuine human existence in relation to her life-meaningful orientations and moral content. It defines the importance of spirituality as a humanistic basis of interhuman communication. These trends in understanding of spirituality require special methodology of its study, which would take into account the universal human sense of this phenomenon, the sociality of spirituality, and also it’s over personality and at the same time, placement in the internal dimension of the person.
Logic of the study of spirituality requires the removal of its essence. What is the essence of spirituality? If mixing something in the process of learning to very common characteristic implies gaining knowledge of knowable entity, can it be said that acquiring insight into a very common characteristic of spirituality allows us to obtain knowledge of its essence?
Spirituality is out of subject because of its perfect nature, while at the same time is able to objectivists in symbols and signs, it is eluding from the cold rational reflection but this does not mean that it is beyond the scope of reason, is absolutely unknowable, and is not reducible to conceptual reflection. In our view, to obtain knowledge of the essence of spirituality is necessary to avoid dealing with it as a reasonable activity, education, enlightenment, aestheticism, religion, morality. This is due to the fact that all of the separate elements, parts of spirituality, becoming off sense without a connecting link between them, which can be represented not simply as a connection, relation, but as that constitute the essence of the concept of spirituality. Without removing the concept of the essence of spirituality, positive and creative moments in a person break down into components that exist in isolation.
For understanding the essence of spirituality, in our opinion, it must be seen as a dialectical unity, as «spirituality exists only in development». It must be defined as the process by some controversy, as the development itself implies the existence of contradictions, which is the root of all change, and consequently, development. For understanding the essence of the spiritual, in our view, required an appreciation of the dialectical interrelation and mutual transition of general and individual, special. In aggregate, the removal of the entity, identification of the universal and the singular, special, consideration of spirituality as integrity, being in a state of dialectical development, will allow for a deeper and more comprehensive exploration.
For understanding the essence of spirituality, in our opinion, it is necessary to identify its basis — that distinguishes it from other concepts with which it is often synonimized (for example, concepts such as kindness, politeness, education, philanthropy, etc.), this making without sense, reducing to the level of particulars, depriving the integrity of, and in general the essence of the notion of spirituality. First you need to determine with the very word «spirituality», its semantic content. On the one hand, spirituality is derived from the words «breath», «breath», which inherently has the necessary conditions of life, its base. But that is not enough in order that this flesh, thought, dreamed, worked, loved. Here is necessary the creative work on another level, but also a universal character, by analogy with the breath that gives life and is a universal base. It turns out that if the nature of the spirit as breathing is it universal, universal creative work, and in the spirit of non-physical, universal aspect must have in his nature, an extremely common feature. In this sense, the spirit must also be a condition of human existence, without which man cannot be.
During the historically short time, in the years of independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan has attained the grain and the oil and gas independence, millions of people received the right of free use of personal property, personal capital, revived the historical memory of the people, developing culture, education and spirituality. In the 49th article of our Constitution specifies that «citizens have the duty to protect the historical, spiritual and cultural heritage of the people of Uzbekistan». It ensures respect for the priceless spiritual heritage of the people. The 4th article guaranteed «respect for the languages, customs and traditions of the Nations and nationalities living on its territory, the creation of conditions for their development».
With the achievement of independence of Uzbekistan the question of spiritual revival has become one of the most important priorities of our state policy. In the Uzbek language have the concept of «spirituality», «spiritual people», «the spirituality of the society», «the spirituality of the nation», in the nature and content of which reflects the vital criteria associated with the destinies of man, nation, society and the nation. The President Islam Karimov during the last years in their speeches, writings and interviews raise issues of spirituality, fostering a comprehensively advanced younger generation of spiritual revival. In his book «High spirituality – an invincible force» Islam Karimov gave the definition of spirituality: «spirituality calls us to a spiritual cleansing, spiritual growth and is an incomparable force that strengthens faith and inner world of man, will power, serves as a criterion of his world outlook». In this work the President gives a description of spiritual values and emphasizes their importance in the education of both current and future generations. Spiritual roots of our people are deep. Their revival and enrichment of new content based on the realities of the present time is one of the most important tasks in the development of spirituality. In recent years Uzbekistan pays great attention to the revival of cultural heritage. In this regard, in the Republic of Uzbekistan are celebrated the anniversaries of such great thinkers as Alisher Navoi, Babur, al-Ferhgani, al-Beruni, Ibn Sina, al-Bukhari, al-Maturidi, at-Termizi and others. In connection with anniversaries were published their works that have enriched the holdings of all libraries and information resource centers.
The spirituality is considered as the main criterion for determining the progress of society, the full development of person, because only when the development of spirituality, in the society is a socio-political and economic stability. And this is necessary foundation for all-round development of person. The role of spirituality in the strengthening and development of moral qualities of the people is very important. As stressed by the President Islam Abduganievich Karimov in his book «On the path of spiritual awakening»: «The strengthening and development of the spiritual condition of our people is one of the most important tasks of the state and society in Uzbekistan. Spirituality is such a precious fruit that is ripe in the soul of our ancient and young people, nurtured a sense of independence and love of freedom”.
The spirituality is a complex and multifaceted concept. It covers many aspects of consciousness, thinking, beliefs, cultural heritage and the system of modern scientific and artistic values, customs, traditions, rituals, religion and religious practice. In turn, each of these phenomena consists of a set of specific values. Naturally, not all of them are equal in their capabilities to serve the needs of independence, influence on society and people.
Recently in the social sciences, attention is paid to the definition of “spirituality”, to identify its place in the life of society, nation and people. Uzbek philosopher A. Jalolov in his book “The responsibility of independence,” writes that “Spirituality is a generic attribute of the person, an integral part of his activity, the product of his consciousness and mind”. In his article “Philosophy of life and life philosophy”, he expands this definition: “Spirituality is the spiritual content of human activity, through the spirituality of the people are aware of themselves, and learn the peculiarities of society, of nature, their existence, as well as features progress, discover their laws, and relying on them to solve the problems with their living conditions and practice”. “Life without spirituality as the dark room”, he writes. A.Ibragimov, H.Sultonov define spirituality as “a concept representing the inner life, the soul, the perception of the society, the nation and the individual”. In the various presentations made at conferences, there are such interpretations as “spirituality is a system that positively affect the full development of humanity, that morality, knowledge, science, faith and devotion”, or “spirituality is the sum of the mental, moral, scientific, practical, ideological attitudes, the degree of reflection of his religious and secular views.” According to A. Erkaev, “spirituality is the essence of man as a social and cultural being, that is, a single set of such qualities, as kindness, fairness, honesty, conscience, patriotism, love of beauty, hatred of evil, will, courage and other virtues”.
Spirituality is the self-consciousness of man, his insight, the ability to distinguish justice from meanness, good from evil, beautiful from ugly, confidence from the waywardness, the ability to set high goals and ideas, commitment to their implementation. As the President Islam Karimov said, spirituality is not a gift of fate. To spirituality reigned in the soul of man needs to work from the heart and conscience, mind and hands. The development of spirituality contributes to family environment, social harmony, a practical embodiment of justice and humanism in public policy. Although man is born from his father and mother, however, his morality, dignity, spiritual world are shaped by the social, political and economic relations in society. The spiritual world of man as the product of social development, has a great influence on the development of society. How will be stronger among people morality, conscience, honesty, generosity, humanism, patriotism, a sense of national and human dignity and pride, a sense of duty and responsibility, so social development will be more stable, and there will be peace and tranquility.
As said the President Islam Karimov in his speech at the first Session of the Oliy Majlis of the first convocation: «The fate of progress is decided by spiritually mature people. Technical knowledge, the ability to master complex technologies must keep pace with the spiritual perfection, with an independent mind». Without spirituality is not fair, having the ability to lift society and spirituality cannot develop without society. Spirituality is an important factor leading the nation to progress, to the power of the state. Similar article: Spirituality as a necessary component of humanization of person.
Thus, the essence of spirituality can to determine as universal human essence, which spiritualizes, humanizes the man, creating in him a holistic being, carnal coupling with the spirit, as well as forming a Trinity of will, soul and mind, «to connect the earthly material life with the life of the soul of man». Unity the above happens when they focus to a single goal — to be the person that is impossible without the spirit, because the spirit is the basis of freedom, which implies a wide range of possible choices. People are free due to the possession of spirituality. To be spiritual means to grow in the spirit, and this already presupposes freedom, since before man unfolds a grand sphere of spiritual development that makes possible freedom of choice of a person under the determination. To be outside of the spirit means to be deprived of this freedom to be restricted material and bodily, which in itself is not that makes someone human, moves him to Nothingness. The idea that «all human life is permeated with the spirit and the life of man is inspired by God, and indeed almost all forms of direct life man touching the spiritual development», shows that the spiritual man, for in him, in the acts of his activity and his artifacts contains timeless human essence content that allows to keep the human in the individual throughout the existence of culture. Those human essence meanings that are reproduced in interpersonal relationships, the results of human activity, in it and in man, are spirituality. Human essence meanings according to the person and the culture grow in spirit, actualize the universal human sense. Therefore, the essence of spirituality is universal human essence.
The possibility of addressing the problem of spirituality with social and philosophical positions, in our view, also real because if «the formation of human relations to the world is preceded by nurturing human relationships to man, than, probably, is the true spirituality», it is necessary to notice that «the relation of one person to another depends not only on the individuals themselves, but also on their environment, social conditions, and the relationship of each person with society and the world as a whole». Therefore, if we assume that the level and degree of development of personal spirituality depend on the quality and level of man’s relationship to the other it allows one to address the problem of spirituality with social and philosophical positions, as it implies in this case, the sociality of man, his existence in the system of social relations. Also assuming that if the spirituality of a person is determined by his attitude toward others, then this means that his spiritual image is inseparable from his involvement in the system of social relations and his social status. It is not surprising that socially vulnerable and humiliated individ attitude towards other people will be different than that of a prosperous and respected man in society. Therefore, in this case we will have two different cases of the relationship of man to man, and hence two different levels of humanization of people, the presence of spirituality.
The historicism of the research of the problem of spirituality is that the entire history of the culture of human society is a historical development in the awareness of the need for spirituality as the main content of the whole subject-practical and cognitive activity of mankind. History shows that the forgetting or ignoring of spiritual values leads to the decline of cultures themselves, degradation and disappearance of humanized in man.
If to speak about the possibility of applying the principle of determinism in relation to the study of spirituality in the original space, then the problem assumes that the spiritual condition of society inevitably progresses in connection with its transition to new phases and turns of development. The ambiguity of this formulation is that under similar reasoning, one can conclude that the current spiritual condition of man and society is much higher than in the previous era of cultural development. The spiritual appearance of modern man and modern society, certainly I wish you the best in light of the triumph of technocratic thinking, devaluation and erosion of spiritual values, total alienation. Doubtfulness in the high spiritual appearance of modern man is also a reminder about the threat of global environmental catastrophe, which is a product and result of immoral-consumer relationship of man to nature. The exclusion of the principle of determinism in the consideration of the historical development of spirituality, in our opinion, is impossible due to the fact that each stage of development of society to a greater or lesser extent peculiar selfishness between people, the mutual extermination on the grounds of conflict of ambitions and the struggle for the resources. Probably, it is impossible to call this historical stage in the development of mankind, in respect of which it would be safe to say that it was a winning implementation of humanistic principles, the triumph of spirituality.
The development of spirituality of man and society is spontaneous and cyclical, because humanity is returned to the comprehension of the problems of spirituality, origins and ways of it return to life priorities in crisis situations. These situations involve a time of loss universal meanings of human essence, which are the components of spirituality. Beyond these one people, as a culture, lose their nature humanized. Consequently, the consideration of the problem of spirituality from the standpoint of historicism involves leaps forward in understanding its significance and setbacks, ignoring the human. Spirituality in historical time is always searching for new ways of understanding, rethinking eternal meanings of human essence. It is true that increased public attention to the problem of spirituality marks the restoration of universal human reason of man and culture, their re-evaluation and approval in the minds of people of this or that historical epoch. It was like in the time of Confucius, when people and culture of ancient Chinese society has received a new round of development as a result of reviving old, but forgotten meanings of human essence, and in post-industrial societies are experiencing an acute need to find and return leachable universal human senses.
Thus, in relation to a complex and multidimensional phenomenon of spirituality possible and necessary research with the use of such methodological principles as integrity, the universal and the individual, historicism. These approaches allow us to consider spirituality as a holistic process that connects the identical and intermingling concepts of universal and individual, are in the dialectical relationship, and spirituality itself be defined as the dialectical process in historical time.
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