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Дильфуза Сайфиллаева
Аль – Газали о роли и значении женщины в обществе
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Sayfillaeva Dilfuza Kaxramonovna

Bukhara State University,

teacher

Chair «National idea, foundation of spirituality and juridical education»

                                                   

Сайфиллаева Дильфуза Кахрамоновна

Бухарский Государственный Университет,

преподаватель

кафедра «Национальная идея, основы духовности и правового образования»

E-mail: dilfuza.sayfillaeva@mail.ru

УДК 29

 

Аль – Газали о роли и значении женщины в обществе

Резюме:Данная статья посвящена взглядам Абу Хамида Газали о женщине и семье, и о той роли, которую они играют в благополучии общества. Материал статьи основан на сочинении мыслителя «Насихат ул — мулк».

Ключевые слова: мораль, ислам, нравственность, цель, хадисы,общество,шариат, женщина, семья.

 

 

Al –Ghazali aboutthe role and value of a woman in society

The Summary: Given article is dedicated to thoughts Abu Hamida Gazali about woman and family, and about that role, which they play of wellfare society. The Material of the article is founded on composition of the thinker «Nasihat ul — мулк».

 

Key words: moral, Islam,ethic,goal, Xadis,society, Shariat, woman, family

                                                                                                                 Al –Ghazali aboutthe role and value of a woman in society

 

 

          From ancient times mankind has been trying to thoroughly comprehend its social being, as well as such an actual issue as woman and society, woman and family, woman and man and their socio-structural interrelation and functioning. Similar to many great thinkers of the past, Al-Ghazali, a great scientist theology’s, analyst of foundations of Islam, the person who regarded the issues concerning the human social being from the position of Islamic doctrines, could not walk past the socio-philosophical concept of the issue that is topical even today.

Al-Ghazali discusses the role of a woman in the society, explains the important role that she plays in social life and in the sphere of education particularly in his work “Instructions to the Rulers”. In doing so, while considering politics, he considers that it (politics) includes such diverse sides of human existence as family, slaves, raising children, choosing a wife and treating her.

At the same time the cardinal postulate in his reflections about the role and place of women in the society is his assertion of the absolutely objective truth that a woman is an important and basic member of the society without whom there is no development and function of the society, education in the family and continuation of human kind. With an eye to this he emphasizes that “the building of the civilized world and the continuation of Adam’s generation is possible owing to women.”[1]

Thereby, he doesn’t regard a woman as being whose purpose is to bring sensual pleasure, but he estimates her role highly in the society. According to the socio-philosophical concept of Ghazali a woman is a wife legitimate by shariah, vital partner of a man, the person who gives birth and together with her husband is responsible for fulfilling family duties and upbringing of children, for building prosperity and favorable climate in the family, and for carrying out a range of social and economic duties.

In Al-Ghazali’s time, naturally moral norms of the society were dictated and regulated by then dominating Islamic religion and they (norms) served as a basis of the relationship between a man and a woman, marital relations, criterion of the social behavior and spiritual image of a woman. He asserted that “religion is a foundation of morality and a source from where virtues and high models of behavior are drawn; and if a woman follows them, she will keep her nobleness, show her humbleness to her husband and his relatives; whereas an unbelieving woman follows her passions in her deeds; pays no attention to her husband and doesn’t look after him, treats him with contempt and flings away his money and property.” [2]

Al-Ghazali disapproved of marriage with a non-Muslim woman, as it contradicted shariah. In his opinion, customs and tendencies of a non-Muslim woman were not suitable for Islam, and her behavior and basis contradicted Islamic morale. According to Al-Ghazali’s conviction, she won’t raise children in Islamic spirit, is not able to provide with sacredness the home and as a result the family will fail.  These principal reflections of Al-Ghazali were the answer to the winnowing of time, when the cult of getting pleasure by material goods started to flourish, the rich wanted luxuries, people started buying slaves from overseas, who introduced the society to alien to Islam customs, norms of behavior. Under their influence morality started to decrease, and vices and different sorts of perversions started to spread. The morality of the Muslim society was in a critical state.

As it can be seen, by considering exactly a woman as one of the efficient factors of overcoming the weakening of the morality of the society, strengthening moral level of the society, strengthening social importance and effects of noble families, he creatively proved his opinion of a woman in creating and functioning of a family. With all his intellectual strength, persuading, he called on the society to follow those spiritual values and social qualities, necessary for a woman, proven by him clearly, understandably and reasonably.

As the above-mentioned shows Al-Ghazali considers the social morale enlightened by Islam as the aggregate of the best spiritual values, as an important condition of becoming an orderly woman, a true keeper of the home and as the foundation of creating a virtuous family that corresponds with the social requirements of that time.

While considering the creation of a happy, healthy family which corresponds with the interests of the society as of the most important task of the society, Al-Ghazali draws our attention to the initial side of its organization – the issue of choosing a future wife with the most necessary characteristics. In his reflections of women with the best qualities, he refers to a Hadis that “the best and most blessed of the women are those who are beautiful, and who can bear many children…”1, i.e. in his social understanding of the world the woman’s beauty and health are of the highest priority. He simultaneously told that if one who wanted good behavior could not find a beautiful woman to love, he then “needs a faithful woman, as that that has faith is better and even more blessed. And if there is faith, there will be wealth, because a woman, who has no faith, no foundation, will never bring welfare.”1

Marriage, a man and a woman’s starting a family is characterized by him as conscious mutual relationship between the two sexes, whose purpose of starting it is to fulfill the requirements of the sharia and to provide with the continuation of the human race. The most important criteria, which he singled out, of the relationships in the family which must be inherent to and followed by a woman, serve, in his opinion, as a basis of mutual respect and love between spouses and strengthening the family. They are actual and rational in many ways. “And the woman — he wrote, — becomes dearer to her husband and his love increases towards her, if she treats him with respect and obedience…, thinks of his interests and refrains herself from anything that harms him, raises his child, … if she is pure in her heart, patiently deals with the hardships, cares whether he eats in time, … receives him tenderly and happily and doesn’t make him do the impossible, ….”2. With the help of amusing, instructive stories he advises a woman to be generous and good in heart, welcoming, friendly, and not to show hostility towards guests.

According to Al-Ghazali the level of the happiness of a family directly depends on a range of other qualities of a woman, which are defined by her social status. In his opinion, a Muslim’s wife must also possess the status of a free person, as a free woman is more preferable to a slave woman. Here he mentions a Hadis of the Prophet, “A free woman is better for you, as a she is cleaner and more blessed for you.”1

Theoretical reflections of Al-Ghazali about a free woman, about the rights of man and woman allow us to come to a conclusion that he in some degree accepted the emancipated state of a woman, adequate to the level of development of social relations of that time.

Al-Ghazali has a negative view of marrying or creating a family on the basis of a contract and he does not conceal his disgust towards a man who wishes to marry for the riches and high position of the woman in the society. He says, “Don’t look for a woman who has popularity and wealth, because the wealth will turn into evil and your wife will not give it to you.”2

Al-Ghazali by exalting the role of Islamic belief as a condition of becoming a blessedwoman, provision of a strong healthy family, high family welfare, certainly, first of all, meant the influence of an embodied step of the development of human moral. This asserts the idea that the stronger the faith oriented at creativeness, in particular, if it is scientifically proven and reflects vital democratic interests of the society in the belief of future developed society, the stronger its moral side and its influence not only on the personality of a woman, on the development of her social potential and role, on a family, but certainly on the whole society as well.

Learning a range of ideas of Al-Ghazali about a woman, her role and place in the society makes us come to a conclusion that in accordance with the historical time, he not only as a scholar, but as a socially concerned person, citizen formulated an originally conceptual approach, imbued with tireless care for preservation and strengthening of morality of the society, about improvement of the role of a woman in the creation and strengthening of a family as an important social institute which improves the state of the society. His suppositions and conclusions are a worthy contribution to the modern spiritual heritage and they are still actually in our days. And this serves for us as one of the conditions of objective scientific understanding of today’s reality and purposeful manifestation of active life position.

 

 

 

 

Литература:

 

1.Абу Хамид  аль – Газали. Наставление правителям и другие сочинения. Пер. с арабск., персидск. А.А Хисматуллина. М.: Ансар, 2005., с.160

2.Г.М. Керимов. Аль-Газали: Религиозно-философские взгляды. Публикуется с книги  Г.М. Керимова Аль-Газали и суфизм.Баку. 1969. С.235

  1. ИмомГаззолий. Уйланишодоби. Й.Эшбек–Тошкент: «Тошкентисломуниверситети» нашриётматбаабирлашмаси, 2009. Б.21

4.Словарь философских  терминов. Москва: 2007г.

 

 

[1]  Абу Хамид  аль – Газали. Наставление правителям и другие сочинения. Пер. с арабск., персидск. А.А Хисматуллина. М.: Ансар, 2005., с.160

[2] Там же, с. 165

1 Абу Хамид  аль – Газали. Наставление правителям и другие сочинения. Пер. с арабск., персидск. А.А Хисматуллина. М.: Ансар, 2005., с. 145

2 Там же, с.157

1 Абу Хамид  аль – Газали. Наставление правителям и другие сочинения. Пер. с арабск., персидск. А.А Хисматуллина. М.: Ансар, 2005., с. 145

2 Там же, с.163-164



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