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Марварид Мамаджонова
Случайность как феномен философии и синергетики
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Марварид Курбоназаровна Мамаджонова

Кафедра «Философия» Ташкентского Государственного педагогического университета имени Низами, преподаватель

Ташкент, Узбекистан

 

E-mail – conference_2012@list.ru

УДК 123. 1

 

Случайность как феномен философии и синергетики

 

Аннотация: В статье рассматриваются философские взгляды о феномене категории «случайность», а также роль и значение этого феномена в синергетике.

Ключевые слова и фразы: синергетика, случайность, диссипация, нелинейность, хаос, порядок.

 

Marvarid Qurbonazarovna Mamadjonoba,

The Nizami Tashkent State Pedagogical University,

Chair of Philosophy, teacher

Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Contingency as a phenomenon of philosophy and synergetics

 

Summary: In article philosophical views about the phenomenon of the category of «contingency», as well as the role and importance of this phenomenon in synergetics are considered.

Keywords and phrases: synergetics, contingency, dissipation, nonlinearity, chaos, order.

 

Случайность как феномен философии и синергетики

 

Notions of contingency originated in ancient times, when the first attempts of man’s awareness of his existence, his relationship to the world, to himself. In this process it turns out that the contingency associated with the need — another extreme form of relationship in the world.

In the history of philosophy relevant to this issue from a variety of different thinkers, ways to build opinions about her range.

Pythagoras (sixth century BC) admits a basis of the number and contained therein proportionality, which he also calls harmonies [1]. The actual number formed even and odd, respectively, the limit and the unlimited. Such a connection is possible only in case of coming harmony. «It would have been impossible the formation of their space, if they are not joined harmony wherever he appeared. For similar and homogeneous elements would not need approval, various and disparate should be necessary, linked by such a harmony, which would keep them together in space» [1]. As you can see, the Pythagoreans gave preference needed. Only limiting, as only infinite body cannot be, because if it were infinite, there would be the object of knowledge. It follows that the limit and the infinite there for each other with need. The accident was defined as that which disrupts the harmony.

Empedocles (490 — 430 BC, BC) recognized the movement and multiplicity of things. He believed the reason the possibilities of movement, and with it the emergence and destruction of things in the mutual displacement and mixing of the elements of which they consist. The very mixture independent of the elements of Love and hate. Love all mixes into a single, Enmity shares [1]. Empedocles recognizes and randomness. In the result of a random combination of material started having differences. The philosopher tries to show examples of the evolution of living beings. Until a normal person, as a result of mixing contingency, appeared the bulls with the heads of the people, but they were not able to give birth and died [1].

Categories of necessity and contingency are important in atomistic interpretation of Genesis. Democritus (460 — 370 BC) does not deny the role of randomness, though, and focuses on the need. He recognized two of the Alphas: the atoms and the void. Atoms are eternal particles of matter and indivisible, have shape, size, position and order. Facing each other in the void, they form vertical flows, of which things occur. «No thing,» said Democritus, there is no reason at all, but all occur on any basis and necessity» [1]. Democritus considering whether as a movement, resistance, and collision of atoms.

The eternal connection and disconnection of atoms is necessary and however, makes the law of universal causation indestructible. The need Democritus receives a mechanistic sense. Very interesting are the views of Democritus on contingency. In many historical and philosophical studies say that Democritus denied the contingency. But it is not so. In antiquity the word «Tyche» meant not only the concept of contingency, but the concept of the mythological image of the rock of destiny. Democritus denied not a coincidence, but «Tyche» as mythological destiny. In his philosophy, some atoms are randomly converging, forming something. In these views contains the time that the case. That is a coincidence here has an objective status. Democritus believed that «the reason of rules in (all) things in case…» [1]. In the views of Democritus is also the idea that an contingency may occur or may not occur. This contingency in the sense of non-casual they were rejected. The contingency seems to be those events, reasons which we do not know. Democritus brought knowledge to establish the causes of events. Known for its thought that he prefers to find one causal explanation than to receive Royal power over the Persians.

Epicurus (approx. 342 -270 BC), the successor to the teachings of Democritus about the atoms, has made a significant contribution to the development of the categories of «necessity» and «contingency». He put forward the position of the random deviations of the atoms from the natural trajectories, resulting in the possible collision of atoms. The deviation of the atoms is due to their severity spontaneously. Natural processes he believed accidentally realized necessities. The views of Epicurus on the need were very interesting: «Who says that everything happens by necessity, he cannot make any rebuke to those who say that everything happens not because of necessity» [1] The Epicurus managed intuitively «get» the dialectics of essential and accidental. He believed that the deviation of the atoms in the motion is necessary, but is implemented randomly. Introduced by Epicurus in ancient atomistics the concept of spontaneous deviation of the atom is the ontological basis of contingency. Under the contingency began to understand the inner property of matter. With regard to the question of human behavior, Epicurus says, «we need to have a disaster, but there’s no need to live with the need to» [1]. It case is the condition for a free and intelligent action.

Plato (427 — 347 BC) believed that the material world consists of various things is secondary, derived from the world of ideas. The world of ideas is transcendent, immaterial reality, which can be theoretically conceivable. The necessity of both Totals (God) persists after the disappearance of individual things. The need for a supernatural, divine, immaterial, eternal, perfect being [3]. Plato distinguishes and opposes the General and individual, concept, and thing. Under the necessity of Plato understood and commitment, a certain order, which should be made of the phenomenon to experience things and to act people. But when the need is seen in the world of things, that he no longer considers it to be divinely supernatural objective force. «Natural necessity is an area where the interaction of four elements: fire, earth, air, and water. Where not yet manifested the power of the Demiurge, applies a natural necessity, generated by the formless. The formless stuff always takes and changes shape, any shades» [3]. In the Plato associates the need to contingency and chaos. On the other hand, under the contingency Plato understands all chaotic, disordered. This contingency random motion of things without the intervention of the Demiurge cannot be sequenced. In some aspect of contingency is understood by Plato as the result of a crossing of a causal series.

Plato did not give the specific wording of the categories of «necessity» and «coincidence» is not clearly defined their relationship. But the philosopher proposed a qualitatively different approach to the analysis of these categories. His concept of ideas is the methodological basis of absolute necessity.

Rational aspects of the teachings of Plato were continued by his disciple Aristotle (384 -322 BC) of Stagira. Aristotle did not accept the doctrine of ideas in the form in which it was proposed by Plato. Stagirite believed ideas are just copies of the sensible things. Not the contemplation of the transcendent world of ideas, and the observation and study of our world, this-worldly, leads to the ultimate truth. His metaphysics Aristotle considered as a doctrine is not about separate things, like Plato’s ideas, but abstracts from these beginnings existing things out and without which they start not exist. Unlike Plato, things Aristotle interpreted as real unity «form» and «matter» [4].

Considering the processes of interaction of many elements of the system, synergetics studies it at the micro level. If the system considered is described by the order parameters as integrity, this macro-level [5]. The openness of the system is a necessary condition of self-organization. But along with this, the system must be nonlinear. As a rule, under nonlinearity understand the mathematical equations that describe the uneven growth of functions with several qualitatively different solutions [5]. Set multiple solutions correspond to paths in the evolution of the system. The transition to one of these pathways occurs abruptly. In other words, we can say that a small perturbation on «input», exceeding a certain threshold value, leads the system to an abrupt spontaneous process, in which «there is a new structure, that is, the system changes its macroscopic state.

In the broadest sense «nonlinearity means a huge variety of behavior and wealth opportunities — threshold effects, not the uniqueness of solutions, the existence of chaotic trajectories, paradoxical anti-intuitive response when changing external influence» [6]. Characteristic non-linearity is a violation of the principle of superposition. This principle States: «the result of one of the influences on the system when there is another impact is not the same as it would be in the absence of the latter» [6]. Thanks to this principle became possible representation of multivariate systems development. The sensitivity of the systems to the impacts, their threshold is closely connected with the nonlinearity. If the impact or disturbance below a certain critical threshold, the system is insensitive to them and retains its structural integrity and Vice versa [6]. In self-organizing systems of nonlinear processes create unexpected, accidental changes in systems. The more complex the system, the higher the hierarchical level, the more pronounced nonlinear effects. Nonlinearity occurs and develops in those areas where there are different kinds of changes. Based on nonlinearity, R. Tom has developed the theory of catastrophes, on the basis of which recently developed a synergistic model of embryonic development. In these models through a series of bifurcations occur chemical concentration is set to a specific mode of gene activity which forms a separate part of the body [7]. In the case of non-equilibrium, nonlinear processes are the formation of separate parts of the body occurs as a process of self-organization. Initially, a random fluctuation, which has exacerbated the mode of gene activity, can lead to the development of certain types of cancer. The system, being in a non-equilibrium state under the influence of random perturbations is changed, thereby a difference between the previous state and the present [7]. Thus, there is a certain vector of development of the system, so to speak, its history, which is linked with this concept of «irreversibility». This term in synergy closely related to the notion of entropy. Irreversibility, and with it the introduction of the one-sided directional time has come to science with the opening of the Klausius second law of thermodynamics. In the works of I. Prigogine entropy is understood as not just the accumulation and dissipation of energy, as a measure of disorder. Entropy is not just growing, but tries to reach its maximum. In open systems is constantly exchanged, and can result in heat loss and energy. Such losses are referred to as production of entropy and irreversible processes. Entropy production in an open system constantly increases. In this sense, you receive the «arrow of time» and irreversibility. The irreversible entropy production leads to its maximum, then the system proceeds to the thermodynamic equilibrium. Thermodynamic systems are irreversible processes taking place in them, are the result of spontaneous activity. Through the processes of dissipation, I. Prigogine believes that the thermodynamic objects cannot be managed until the end [8]. Matter is active and independently generates irreversible processes, which, in turn, organize matter. Due to the fact that the system is in a nonequilibrium state behaves randomly, i.e. the direction of its development it is impossible to fully predict. The future is not contained and is not set in the present; there are sets of probabilistic trajectories of development in time, which are implemented through the occasion. The distinction between the future state of the system and the past tells us about the irreversibility of processes in time. «Our real-life experience shows that between time and space there is a fundamental difference. We can move from one point of space to another, but unable to turn back time. We can’t rearrange the past and the future» [8]. Irreversibility and entropy in the processes of self-organization play the role of a barrier, through which is the restriction of the initial conditions, propagating in the subsequent moments of time. A very important moment in the works of I. Prigogine is that entropy, acting as a «sieve» that provides the system with all the conditions for self-organization and subsequent evolution. The limitation related to the impossibility of overcoming the speed of light, provides the existence of causality. It is the existence of entropic barrier makes it impossible to change the direction of time [8]. In order to change the course of time, to overcome the irreversibility, you must have infinite information that corresponds to each initial condition. Information is specific carrier order for systems evolving to chaotic forms. It is constant in time and can act as an attractor, as it structures the systems and processes of self-organization. In the processes of self-change of entropy is closely connected with information. Entropy decreases, the information increases. Each random event occurs; the process is a probability distribution and, consequently, the accumulation and refinement of information, which corresponds to the process of self-organization of any system.

 

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  8. See: Пригожин И., Стенгерс И. Порядок из хаоса. Новый диалог человека с природой. М.: Эдиториал УРСС, 2000. — 310 с.; Пригожин И., Стенгерс И. Время, хаос, квант: к решению парадокса времени. М.: Прогресс, 1999. — 268 с.; Пригожин И. От существующего к возникающему. Время и сложность в физических науках. -М.: Наука. 1985. 317 с.; Пригожин И. Перспективы исследования сложности / Системные исследования. Ежегодник. 1986. М., 1987. — С. 45 — 57.; Пригожин И. Неравновесная статистическая механика. Череповец: Меркурий — Пресс, 2000. — 314 с.


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