Журнальный клуб Интелрос » Философия науки » №17, 2012
I.Kassavin. Communication and Creativity
Modern epistemology focusing on the nature of creative cognition problematizes the famous alternatives of individualism and collectivism, representativism and constructivism. Creativity is thus situated in the space between the unique creative personality and mechanisms of social communication (social recognition), and balances between producing in a mysterious manner of what does not exist and of cognizing of what exists and how it exists. Communication in some hidden or minimal form can be found in every creative act, and genuine communication is inconceivable without producing new meanings. Besides all, an attention to communicative context allows complementing the descriptive-interdisciplinary study of creativity with its existential aspect as dramatic unity of the stable and the dynamic, discipline and freedom.
Keywords: Knowledge, creativity, communication, meaning, existence, social; epistemology, interaction, language.
D.Dubrovsky. Problem of Cognition of Other Subjective Reality
Key questions of a problem of “other minds” are discussed: 1) what are the definition criteria that some external object, including other person, possesses quality of a subjective reality? 2) how the knowledge (understanding) of substantially certain conditions of another’s subjective reality is reached and how is it possible? Insufficiency of the «argument from analogy» is found while attempting to answer these questions. The role of various hermeneutic approaches to understanding of another’s subjective reality is considered, perspectivity of scientific hermeneutics is shown, in particular, in such branch as neurocryptology which puts and solves problems of decoding of brain codes of the phenomena of a subjective reality.
Keywords: «other minds», subjective reality, personal and public, «argument from analogy», epistemology of a subjective reality, the communicative approach, scientific hermeneutics, decoding of brain codes of the mental phenomena.
N.Smirnova. Communication and Intersubjectivity
The subject matter of the paper is cognitive analysis of nature and essence of social communications by means of conceptualization of the various concepts of “intersubjectivity”. The socio-phenomenological approach to the problem is studied. In the framework of social phenomenology an attempt to answer the question, what presuppositions should be taken into consideration and what idealizations to be made in solving the problem is examined. It is argued that there are some rules to be followed in order to meet methodological standards in social sciences and humanities.290 Summaries
Keywords: intersubjectivity, meaning, direct (indirect) communications, social phenomenology.
L.Markova. Polisubjectivity as a Basis of Communication
Individual and special are general properties of all people, and they are the basis of a new logic of communication, which assums the presence of many subjects, at least, two of them. Meantime the second pole of any discourse, the general one, remains in the context, it ceases to be dominating. Both poles are necessary, but their role in logic is different, first of all from the point of view of their significance. For nonclassical reason other reason as distinct from it, is necessary, differently it will cease to be reason of communication.
Keywords: Individual, special, general, context, knowledge, dialogue, intersubjectivity, communication, logic of thinking, pluralism.
D.Ivanov. Other Minds, Inversion of Spectrum and Private Language
The paper deals with the problem of other minds. It aims to refute the skepticism about the possibility of knowing the content of consciousness of other people. This sort of skepticism is supported by the inverted spectrum argument. Those philosophers who appeal to the argument try to demonstrate that our functional and behavior duplicates can have different conscious experience. If they are right then we should accept the possibility of this skepticism. But the paper demonstrates that analyzing the communicative aspects of colour perception we can reject the argument.
Keywords: philosophy of mind, other minds, inverted spectrum argument, private language argument.
E.Knyazeva. Construction in Communicative Systems
The evolutionary epistemological approach to the analysis of the phenomenon of communication is developed in the article. It is shown that such properties of communication interaction, as sense-making, construction, understanding, mutual appearance (co-emergence) of communicating creatures as well as flexibility have evolutionary origins. The connection of the phenomenon of the human communication with processes of communication in the world of animals is demonstrated; the meaning of the phenomenon of construction (enaction) and emergence in the processes of communication is also under consideration.
Keywords: communication, constructivism, co-evolution, life, self-organization, meaning, emergency, enactivity, empathy, evolutionary epistemology.
I.Beskova. The Communicating Universes
In a paper the phenomenon of complex conceptual forms of communication is examined. It is argued that the arising of contradictory approaches is conditioned by a) the specificity of individual level of objective reality organi-Summaries 291 zation, opened to interrelation with this concrete human being, and b) filter of dual perception which provokes seeing of a nondual complex phenomenon as adequately presentable in a form of “P and no-P”. The conclusion that the most affective communicative strategy in the course of complex theoretical problems discussing is to orient of yourself to a position that the opponent’s view may be true though it totally contradicts to your own position is offered in the article.
Keywords: communication, reality, corporeality, embodiment, consciousness, unconscious, consensus, experience, paradox, duality.
E.Shulga. Symbolical Interactionism and the Problem of Understanding
The subject of the paper is a specific character of the communication in light of issue of understanding. It is shown that the engagement of understanding into arranging the communication as sense making activity, endowing objects with the senses during the communication process is a fundamental requiring of the social analysis of interactionism. The conclusion is made that an interpretative aspect of symbolical interactivity should be considered as belonging to the problem field of philosophical hermeneutics and such a new trend the author terms “social hermeneutics”.
Keywords: interaction, communication, understanding, meaning, social role, norm, social hermeneutics.
E.Trufanova. Role of Сommunication in the Сonstruction of Personal Identity
Author researches the role of communication in the construction of the personal identity, giving the main focus of the research to the role of modern mass communcations – mass media, Internet, mobile technologies. Author proves that due to unprecedented growth of the communication space modern personal identity becomes an elaborate system, like the net, that unites all the interactions of the individual with other communicants, with the world and with oneself.
Keywords: personal identity, mass media, mass communication, autocommunication, Internet, mobile technologies.
N.Mudragey. Communication as a Human’s Measure
The urgency of communication is determined by the political, social and psychological climate in the modern world. The concept of communication as a measure of the man was in the core of K.Jaspers’s philosophy. This article discuses the forms of the Encompassing, each of which corresponds to a form of communication. Integrity of a man is realized by reason as an all-encompassing bond, all-out will to communicate and Existenz as an authentic basis of human existence. The genuine existential communication is realized in the communications with another Existenz through reason.292 Summaries
Keywords: Communication, encompassing, reason, existence, transcendence, truth.
A.Nikiforov. Language as a Mean of Construction of Individual Life World
In the present paper it is argued, that the meaning of linguistic expression is characterized by a complex structure, which embraces everyday and scientific knowledge, cultural connotations and assessments of things and phenomena. When interpreting through the sensorium and language the external impacts, a human being constructs the outer world, in which he lives and acts.
Keywords: Language, meaning, sense, reference, semantical field, picture of world.
A.Antonovsky. Communication and Understanding: Possibilities and Gaps
Author argues that the modern electronic telecommunication doesn’t radicalize but rather neutralizes and lessens some radical rupture between a semantic reality and a “natural” one of the human world – the rupture which arises from some effects of the written language and the press.
Keywords: communication, information, message, understanding, telekommunication, general communication media.
P.Kusliy. Apriority and Semantic Content
The author argues that apriority/aposteriority of identities of linguistic expressions is not to be regarded as a factor related to the semantic content of those expressions. The author regards the Principle of Leibniz as a fundamental semantic criterion for the sameness of semantic content of linguistic expressions and argues that theories which treat apriority/aposteriority as semantically relevant (i.e. as relevant for the truth conditions of sentences) fail to comply with the this Principle. Consequently, they fail to cope satisfactorily with the problem of interchangeability of expressions with the same meaning. As examples of such unsatisfactory theories the author considers the conceptions of Gottlob Frege and David Chalmers and discuss those aspects of their theories which he views as shortcomings.
Keywords: apriority, semantic content, reference, Frege, Chalmers.
A.Ivin. Estimation in the Process of Communication
The article is devoted to examine of the peculiarity of using of the estimations in the processes of communication. Thefollowingmainproblemsare considered: the connection of evaluations with descriptions, the reduction of norms to evaluations, impossibility of logical transition from descriptive premises to evaluative conclusion (the “principle of Hume”), new basing of the idea about impossibility of logical transition from “is” to “ought”, the structure of purposing substantiation of estimations and its inductive character. It is affirmed that positivistic demand to exclude of any estimations from the language of social sciences is not realistic. More week idea of G. Mürdal aboutstrict separation of estimations from descriptions in social discussions also is nonrealistic.
Keywords: estimation, norm, description, impossibility of logical transition from “is” to “ought”, the structure of purposing substantiation of estimations, impossibility to exclude of the estimations from the language of social science.
J.Morkina. Communicative Aspect of Meaning
The meaning as the human phenomenon arises and functions in the communications. The person gives meaning for everything, that he sees surrounded, including by everything that is connected to other people. Other people are a source of giving of meaning to the world around. Situations of the communications are meaningful for each person. From here the problem intersubjectivity sees as a problem of the beginnings of intelligence of the human world. To understand, how the substratum of meaning functions in the communications, we have analyzed it as complex ideal system.
Keywords: meaning, sense, communications, intersubjectivity, substratum of meaning, complexity, complex ideal systems.
G.Levin. Dialogue as the Form of Communication
Communications in this article are understood as an information transfer from one person to another, while dialogue - as communications with a feedback. It is shown, that, contrary to a popular belief, the truth in dialogue is not born, and is only transferred from one person to another. Author gives genetic classification of forms of communications and defines the place of the dialogue in it.
Keywords: research, communications, monologue, dialogue, truth, reliability, rationality, theoretical, empirical.
N.Abramova. Communication. Unvoluntary type of communication
The paper considers the types of communication: communication as message, communication as intention, involuntary (unconscious) communication; examines the philosophical doctrines in the bosom of which the ideas of considering types were formed; founds the means of explication of unconscious communication.
Keywords: Communication, types of communication, communication as message, communication as intention, involuntary (unconscious) communication.
I.Farman. Monitoring as a Mean of Research and Representation of Knowledge
The article deals with monitoring in epistemological contexts. It is a promising method in cognitive practice and experimental science. It can be applied as an instrument for solving concrete tasks and for getting under control complex situations occurring in contemporary processes of modernization and development of information-communicative technologies.
Keywords: situation of monitoring, norms, standards, social monitoring, global monitoring, information-communicative technologies.
A.Maidanov. Specificity of Communication of the Blind in Their Intellectual Activity
In article specificity of communicative processes in various kinds and situations of intellectual activity of the blind is analyzed. The attention is concentrated to features of dialogue blind and able to see in this activity, on an information transfer in the course of training, on the mediated character of communications with information sources, on features of dialogue blind with an environment. Questions of an originality of familiarising blind to the world of art, working out in this sphere of specific ways of communications with this world, roles of this kind of aesthetic education for development of communications blind with surrounding social environment, for their more successful integration into it, for their scientific and teaching activity are in details taken up.
Keywords: blind, able to see, communication, personality, intelligence, information, perception, codes, difficulties, activity, cognitive activity, language, adaptation, compensatory means, cooperation, eticality