In recent years, Russian President Vladimir Putin has hardly veiled his desire to lead Russia back to superpower status. Putin’s rhetoric emphasizes a multipolar world where the United States is no longer the dominant power, and his actions present Russian global leadership as a viable alternative to the United States’. Increasingly visible is the multifaceted nature of Russia’s tactics for undermining U.S. power projection in multiple theaters, including Latin America. Leaders of the U.S. defense and intelligence communities have responded to Russia’s growing global assertiveness by repeatedly singling out Russia as the primary military and strategic threat to the United States, particularly following Russia’s recent annexation of Crimea and hostile activities in Ukraine. In March 2015, Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper labeled Russia a “threat actor” and an example of a nation where “the nexus among organized crime, state actors, and business blurs the distinction between state policy and private gain.” The 2015 National Military Strategy presented by the Joint Chiefs of Staff noted that Russia “has repeatedly demonstrated that it does not respect the sovereignty of its neighbors and it is willing to use force to achieve its goals. Russia’s military actions are undermining regional security directly and through proxy forces.” The accuracy of these assessments of Russian intentions and capabilities can be documented throughout many parts of the world. Yet this lens is seldom used in analyzing the burgeoning Russian diplomatic and military presence in Latin America – particularly in Central America. The formal Russian state presence is accompanied by state business ventures, soft power overtures, increasing Russian organized criminal activity, and the reactivation of Cold War proxy networks.